Comparing Three Versions of the Egyptian Constitution

Comparing Three Versions of the Egyptian Constitution


    
Constitution of 1971
as revised 2007
[Official Translation]

Preamble

We, the people of Egypt, who have been toiling on this great land since the dawn of history and the beginning of civilization:

We, the people working in Egypt's villages, cities, plants, centers of education, industry and in each and every field of work which contributes to the making of life on its soil or shares in the honor of defending this land;

We, the people who believe in our immortal and spiritual heritage, and who are confident in our profound faith, and cherish the honor of man and of humanity;

We, the people, who in addition to shouldering the trust of history, carry the responsibility of great present and future objectives deeply rooted in the long and arduous struggle, where flags of freedom, socialism and unity were hoisted along the path of the great march of the Arab nation.

We, the Egyptian people, in the name of Allah and with His assistance, pledge indefinitely and unconditionally to exert every effort to realize:

First: Peace for our world:

Being determined that peace should be based on justice, and that the political and social progress of all peoples can only be realized through the freedom of these peoples and their independent will, and that any civilization is not worthy of its name unless it is free from exploitation whatever its form.

Second: Unity: The hope for our Arab Nation:

Being convinced that Arab unity is a call of history and of the future, and a demand of destiny; and that unity can materialize only under the protection of an Arab nation capable of warding off any threat, under whatever pretexts.

Third: Sustained Development of life in our country:

Being convinced that the real challenge to nations is to make progress and that such progress does not occur automatically, or through slogans; but that the driving force behind it is to unleash the potentials of creativity and inspiration in our people, who have asserted at all times their contribution to civilization and to humanity through work alone.

Our people have passed through successive experiences, during which they offered and were guided by national and international experiences, which ultimately took shape in the July 23 Revolution of 1952.

This Revolution was brought about by the alliance of the working forces of our perseverant people who were able, through profound and refined consciousness, to retain their original character, continually rectifying their course and realizing an integration between science and faith, between political and social freedom, between national independence and social affiliation; between the universality of struggle for the liberation of man, on the political, economic, cultural and ideological levels, and the struggle against forces of regression, hegemony and exploitation.

Fourth: Freedom and Humanity of Egyptians:

Realizing that man's humanity and dignity are the beams of light that guide and direct the course of the great development of mankind for the realization of its supreme ideal.

Man's dignity is a natural reflection of the nation's dignity, now that the individual is the cornerstone in the edifice of the homeland, the land that derives its strength and prestige from the value of man and his education.

The rule of law is not only a guarantee for the freedom of individual alone, but is also at the same time the sole basis for legitimacy of authority.

The formula of alliance of active popular powers is not a means for social strife towards historical evolution, but is, under the current climate and means of this modern age, indeed a safety valve that protects the unity of working powers in the country and eliminates, internal contradictions in the cause of democratic interaction.

We, the people of Egypt, out of determination, confidence and faith in all national and international responsibilities, and in acknowledgment of Allah's right and His Heavenly Messages, and in the right of the country and nation, as well as of the principle and responsibility of mankind, and in the name of the Almighty and His assistance, declare on the 11th of September, 1971 that we accept and grant to ourselves this Constitution, affirming our determination to defend and protect it, and asserting our respect for it in letter and spirit.

Part I: The State

Article 1:
The Arab Republic of Egypt is a democratic state based on citizenship. The Egyptian people are part of the Arab nation and work for the realization of its comprehensive unity

Article 2:
Islam is the religion of the state and Arabic its official language. Principles of Islamic law (Shari'a) are the principal source of legislation

Article 3:
Sovereignty is for the people alone and they are the source of authority. The people shall exercise and protect this sovereignty, and safeguard national unity in the manner specified in the Constitution

Article 4:
Economy in the Arab Republic of Egypt is based on the development of economic activity, social justice, guarantee of different forms of property and the preservation of laborers' rights

Article 5:
The political system of the Arab Republic of Egypt is a multiparty system, within the framework of the basic elements and principles of the Egyptian society as stipulated in the Constitution. Political parties are regulated by law.

Citizens have the right to establish political parties according to the law and no political activity shall be neither exercised nor political parties established on a religious referential authority, on a religious basis or on discrimination on grounds of gender or origin

Article 6:
Egyptian nationality is defined by the law

Part II: Basic Foundations of Society

Chapter I: Social and Moral Constituents

Article 7:
Social solidarity is the basis of the society

Article 8:
The State shall guarantee equality of opportunity to all citizens

Article 9:
The family is the basis of the society and is founded on religion, morality and patriotism. The State is keen to preserve the genuine character of the Egyptian family-together with the values and traditions it embodies-while affirming and developing this character in the relations within the Egyptian society

Article 10:
The State shall guarantee the protection of motherhood and childhood, take care of children and youth and provide suitable conditions for the development of their talents

Article 11:
The State shall guarantee harmonization between the duties of woman towards the family and her work in the society, ensuring her equality status with man in fields of political, social, cultural and economic life without violation of the rules of Islamic jurisprudence

Article 12:
Society shall be committed to safeguarding and protecting morals, promoting genuine Egyptian traditions. It shall give due consideration, within the limits of law, to high standards of religious education, moral and national values, historical heritage of the people, scientific facts and public morality.

The State is committed to abiding by these principles and promoting them

Article 13:
Work is a right, a duty and an honor guaranteed by the State.

Excellent-performing workers are subject of appreciation by the State and the society. No work shall be enforced on the citizens, except by virtue of law and for the performance of a public service and in return for a fair remuneration

Article 14:
Public offices are the right of all citizens and an assignment for their incumbents in the service of the people.

The State guarantees for incumbents protection and performance of their duties in promoting the interests of the people.

They may not be dismissed by other than disciplinary action, save for cases specified by the law

Article 15:
War veterans, those injured in or because of war and wives and children of martyrs killed in action shall have priority in work opportunities according to the law

Article 16:
The State shall guarantee cultural, social and health services, and work to ensure them particularly for villages in an easy and regular manner in order to raise their standard

Article 17:
The State- shall guarantee social and health insurance services and all citizens have the right in accordance with the law to pension in cases of incapacity, unemployment and old age

Article 18:
Education is a right guaranteed by the State. It is obligatory in the primary stage and the State shall work to extend obligation to other stages.

The State shall supervise all branches of education and shall guarantee the independence of universities and scientific research centers, with a view to linking all this with society and production requirements

Article 19:
Religious education shall be a principal topic of general education curricula

Article 20:
Education in the State educational institutions shall be free of charge at its various stages

Article 21:
Combating illiteracy shall be a national duty for which all the people's energies should be mobilized

Article 22:
The institution of civil titles shall be prohibited

Chapter II: Economic Constituents

Article 23:
National economy shall be organized in accordance with a comprehensive development plan, which ensures increase of national income, fair distribution, enhancement of standard of living, elimination of unemployment, increase of work opportunities, correlation of wages with production, guarantee of minimum and maximum wages limits in such a way as to bridge income

Article 24:
The State shall sponsor national production and shall work for realizing social and economic development

Article 25:
Every citizen shall have a share in national revenue to be defined by the law in consideration for his work or his unexploitative ownership

Article 26:
Workers shall have a share of management and profits of enterprises. They are committed to the development of production and the implementation of the plan in their production units, in accordance with the law. Protecting the means of production is a national duty.

Workers shall be represented on the boards of directors of the public sector units by at least 50% of the number of members of these boards. The law shall guarantee for small farmers and small craftsmen 80% of the membership on the boards of directors of the agricultural co-operatives and industrial cooperatives

Article 27:
Beneficiaries shall participate in the management of service enterprises of public interest and their supervision in accordance with the law

Article 28:
The State shall look after co-operative establishments of all forms and encourage handicrafts with a view to developing production and income levels.

The State shall endeavor to reinforce agricultural cooperatives according to modern scientific bases

Article 29:
Ownership shall be under the supervision of the people and the protection of the State. There are three kinds of ownership: public, cooperative and private

Article 30:
Public ownership is the ownership of the people as represented in the ownership of the State and public legal persons

Article 31:
Co-operative ownership is the ownership of the cooperative societies. The law guarantees its protection and self- management

Article 32:
Private ownership shall be represented by the unexploitative capital. The law organizes the performance of its social function in the service of national economy within the framework of the development plan without deviation or exploitation. It may not be in conflict, in ways of its use, with the general welfare of the people

Article 33:
Public ownership shall have its sanctity, and its protection and reinforcement are the duty of every citizen in accordance with the law

Article 34:
Private ownership shall be safeguarded and may not be put under sequestration except in the cases specified in the law and under a court judgment. It may not be expropriated save for the public benefit and against a fair compensation in accordance with the law. The right of inheritance to it is guaranteed

Article 35:
Nationalization shall not be allowed except for considerations of the public interest, in accordance with a law and against compensation

Article 36:
Public sequestration of property shall be prohibited. Private sequestration shall not be allowed except under a court judgment

Article 37:
The law shall determine the maximum limit of agricultural ownership and shall guarantee protection for peasants and agricultural workers against exploitation

Article 38:
The tax system shall be based on social justice

Article 39:
Saving is a national duty protected, encouraged and organized by the State

Part III: Public Freedoms, Rights and Duties

Article 40:
All citizens are equal before the law.

They have equal public rights and duties without discrimination on grounds of race, ethnic origin, language, religion or creed

Article 41:
Individual freedom is a natural right and safeguarded and inviolable. Save for the case of being caught red-handed, no person may be arrested, inspected, detained or his freedom restricted or prevented from free movement except under an order necessitated by investigations and preservation of the security of the society.

Such order shall be given by the competent judge or the Public Prosecution in accordance with the provisions of the law.

The law shall determine the period of custody

Article 42:
Any person arrested, detained or his freedom restricted shall be treated in such a manner that preserves his human dignity.

No physical or moral harm shall be inflicted upon him.

He may not be detained or imprisoned in places other than those defined by laws regulating prisons.

Any statement proved to have been made by a person under any of the aforementioned forms of duress or coercion or under the threat thereof, shall be considered invalid and futile

Article 43:
No person may be subjected to any medical or scientific experiment without his free consent

Article 44:
Homes shall have their own sanctity and they may not be entered or inspected except by a causal judicial warrant prescribed by the law

Article 45:
The law shall protect the inviolability of the private life of citizens.

Correspondence, wires, telephone calls and other means of communication shall have their own sanctity and secrecy and may not be confiscated or monitored except by a causal judicial warrant and for a definite period according to the provisions of the law

Article 46:
The State shall guarantee the freedom of belief and the freedom of practice of religious rites

Article 47:
Freedom of opinion is guaranteed.

Every individual has the right to express his opinion and to disseminate it verbally, in writing, illustration or by other means within the limits of the law. Self-criticism and constructive criticism is a guarantee for the safety of the national structure

Article 48:
Freedom of the press, printing, publication and mass media shall be guaranteed. Censorship on newspapers is forbidden. Warning, suspension or abolition of newspapers by administrative means is prohibited. However, in case of declared state of emergency or in time of war, limited censorship may be imposed on newspapers, publications and mass media in matters related to public safety or for purposes of national security in accordance with the law

Article 49:
The State shall guarantee the freedom of scientific research and literary, artistic and cultural creativity and provide necessary encouraging means for its realization

Article 50:
No citizen may be reside in place nor forced to reside in a particular place, except in the cases defined by the law

Article 51:
No citizen may be deported from or prevented from returning to the country

Article 52:
Citizens shall have the right to permanent or temporary immigration. The law shall regulate this right and the measures and conditions for immigration and leaving the country

Article 53:
The right to political asylum shall be granted by the State for every foreigner persecuted for defending the peoples' interests, human rights, peace or justice. Extradition of political refugees is prohibited

Article 54:
Citizens shall have the right to peaceable and unarmed private assembly, without the need for prior notice.

Security men shall not attend such private meetings.

Public meetings, processions and gatherings are allowed within the limits of the law

Article 55:
Citizens shall have the right to association as defined in the law.

It is prohibited to establish a society whose activities are hostile to the social system, clandestine or have a military character is prohibited

Article 56:
The establishment of syndicates and unions on a democratic basis is a right guaranteed by law, and shall be deemed legal persons.

The law shall regulate the participation of syndicates and unions in implementing social programs and plans, raising the standard of productivity among their members, and safeguarding their assets

Article 57:
Any encroachment upon individual freedom or the inviolability of private life of citizens and any other public rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution and the law shall be considered a crime, for which criminal and civil lawsuit shall not be forfeited by prescription.

The State shall grant a fair compensation to the victim of such encroachment

Article 58:
Defense of the motherland and its soil is a sacred duty, and conscription is obligatory in accordance with the law

Article 59:
Environmental protection is a national duty and the law shall regulate measures necessary to maintain good environment

Article 60:
Protection of national unity and maintenance of State secrets is the duty of every citizen

Article 61:
Payment of taxes and public charges is a duty, in accordance with the law

Article 62:
Citizens shall have the right to vote and express their opinions in referendums according to the provisions of the law. Their participation in public life is a national duty. The law shall regulate the right of candidacy to the People's Assembly and the Shura Council according to the electoral system it specifies. The law may adopt a system that combines between the individual and the party-list systems at such ratio as may be specified by the law. Such system may also include a minimum limit for the women's participation in both councils

Article 63:
Every individual has the right to address public authorities in writing and under his own signature.

Addressing public authorities should not be in the name of groups, with the exception of statutory bodies and juridical persons

Part IV: Sovereignty of Law

Article 64:
Sovereignty of the law shall be the basis of rule in the State

Article 65:
The State shall be subject to law.

The independence and immunity of the judiciary are two basic guarantees to safeguard rights and freedoms

Article 66:
Penalty shall be personalized.

There shall be no crime or penalty except by virtue of the law.

No penalty shall be inflicted except by a judicial sentence.

Penalty shall be inflicted only for acts committed subsequent to the promulgation of the law prescribing it

Article 67:
A defendant is innocent until proved guilty in legal trial, in which he is granted the right to defend himself.

Every person accused of a crime shall be provided with counsel for his defense

Article 68:
The right to litigation is inalienable and guaranteed for all, and every citizen has the right to have access to his natural judge.

The State shall guarantee accessibility of judicature for litigants, and rapid decision on cases. Any provision in the law stipulating immunity of any act or administrative decision from the control of the judicature is prohibited

Article 69:
The right of defense in person or by proxy is guaranteed.

The Law shall secure, for financially incapable citizens, means to resort to justice and to defend their rights

Article 70:
No criminal action shall be made except under an order from a judiciary body, save for cases defined by the law

Article 71:
Any person arrested or detained should be informed forthwith of the reasons for his arrest or detention.

He shall have the right to communicate, with whoever he deems fit to inform, and ask for his help in the manner regulated by the law.

He shall be promptly faced with the charges leveled against him. Any person may lodge an appeal to the courts against any measure taken to restrict his individual freedom.

The law shall regulate the right of appeal in a manner ensuring decision within a definite period; otherwise release is imperative

Article 72:
Sentences shall be issued and enforced in the name of the people.

Likewise, abstention from or obstruction of enforcing such sentences on the part of the concerned civil servants is considered a crime punishable by law.

In such case, a person issued a sentence in his favor of, shall have the right to lodge a direct criminal action before the competent court

Part V: System of Government

Chapter I: The Head of State

Article 73:
The Head of State is the President of the Republic. He shall ensure sovereignty of the people, respect for the Constitution and rule of law, protection of national unity and the social justice and shall tend to the boundaries between authorities in such way as to ensure that each shall perform its role in national action

Article 74:
Should there emerge an instant and brave risk that threatens national unity or safety of the motherland or obstructs the performance by State institutions of their constitutional role, the President shall take urgent measures to confront such risk after soliciting the opinion of the Prime Minister and the Speakers of the People's Assembly and the Shura Council and deliver a statement to the people. A referendum on these measures taken thereby shall be conducted within sixty days of the date of adopting such measures. The People's Assembly and the Shura Council may not be dissolved during the time of exercising these authorities

Article 75:
The person to be elected President of the Republic should be an Egyptian citizen born to Egyptian parents and should enjoy civil and political rights.

His age must not be less than 40 Gregorian years

Article 76:
The President shall be elected by direct, public, secret ballot. For an applicant to be accepted as a candidate to presidency, he shall be supported by at least 250 elected members of the People's Assembly, the Shura Council and local popular councils on governorate level, provided that those shall include at least 65 members of the People's Assembly, 25 of the Shura Council and ten of every local council in at least 14 governorates.

The number of members of the People's Assembly, the Shura Council and local popular councils on governorate level supporting candidature shall be raised in pro rata to any increase in the number of any of these councils. In all cases, support may not be given to more than one candidate.

Procedures related to this process shall be regulated by the law.

Political parties, founded at least five consecutive years before the starting date of candidature and have been operating uninterruptedly for this period, and whose members have obtained at least 3% of the elected members of both the People's Assembly and the Shura Council in the latest election or an equivalent percentage of such total in one of the two assemblies, may each nominate for presidency a member of their respective higher board, according to their own by-laws, provided he has been a member of such board for at least one consecutive year. As an exception to the provisions of the afore-mentioned paragraph, the afore-mentioned political parties whose members obtained at least one seat in any of the People's Assembly or the Shura Council in the latest election may nominate in any presidential elections to be held within ten years starting from May 1, 2007, any member of its higher board, according to their own by-laws, provided he has been a member of such board for at least one consecutive year.

Candidature applications shall be submitted to an independent committee, named the Presidential Election Committee. The committee shall be composed of the head of the Supreme Constitutional Court as a chairman and the head of the Cairo Court of Appeal, the most senior deputy of the head of the Supreme Constitutional Court, the most senior deputy of the head of the Court of Cassation, the most senior deputy of the State Council and five public figures, recognized for impartiality. Three of the fore- mentioned public figures shall be selected by the People's Assembly and the other two by the Shura Council upon a recommendation of the bureaus of both houses for a period of five years.

The law shall determine who will act on behalf of the chairman or any member of the committee, should there be some reason for their absence.

This committee shall exclusively have the following competences:

1. to declare the initiation of candidature and supervise procedures for declaring the final list of candidates;

2. to generally supervise balloting and vote-counting procedures;

3. to announce elections results;

4. to decide on all appeals, challenges and all matters related to its competences, including conflict of jurisdiction;

5. to draw up by-laws regulating its modus operandi and method of practicing its competences.

The committee's resolutions shall be passed with a majority of at least seven members. Its resolutions shall be final, self-enforcing and incontestable by any means or before any authority whatsoever.

Its resolutions may not be challenged through construing or stay of execution. The law regulating presidential elections shall determine other competences for the committee. The law shall also determine regulating rules governing the nomination of a candidate to replace another one who has vacated his seat for some reasons other than assignment within the period between the starting date of candidature and before the termination of voting.

Voting shall be conducted in one single day. The Presidential Election Committee shall establish committees to administer stages of the voting and ballot-counting process. The committee shall establish main committees to be composed of members of the judiciary to supervise the process in accordance with such rules and regulations as may be decided by the committee.

Election of the president shall be declared when candidates have obtained an absolute majority of the number of valid votes.

In the event that none of the candidates has obtained such majority, election shall be repeated, at least after seven days, between the two candidates who have obtained the largest number of votes. Should another candidate obtain a number of valid votes equal to those of the second, he shall take part in the re-election. In this case, the candidate who has obtained the largest number of votes will be declared winner.

Voting for electing the president shall be effected, even though one single candidate has applied or even if he was the only candidate remaining due to assignment of the rest of candidates or due to failure to field another candidate in lieu of the one vacating his seat. In this case, the candidate who has obtained the absolute majority of the number of valid votes shall be declared winner. The law shall regulate procedures to be followed in the event the candidate has failed to obtain this majority.

The President shall submit the draft law regulating the presidential election to the Supreme Constitutional Court following endorsement by the People's Assembly and before promulgation, to determine compliance with the Constitution. The Court shall return its ruling in this connection within fifteen days from date of submission thereto. Should the court decide that one or more provisions of the draft law are unconstitutional, the President shall return it to the People's Assembly to put this ruling into effect. In all cases, the court's ruling shall be binding to all parties and all state authorities. The law shall be published in the Official Gazette within three days from date of issuance

Article 77:
The term of the Presidency is six Gregorian years starting from the date of the announcement of the result of referendum.

The President of the Republic may be re-elected for other successive terms

Article 78:
Procedures for the choice of a new President of the Republic shall begin sixty days before the expiration of the term of the President in office.

The new President shall be selected at least one week before the expiration of the term. Should the election of the new president be announced before the end of the term of his predecessor, his presidential term shall start from the second day following the end of such a term. Should this term expire without the choice of the new President being made for any reason whatsoever, the former President shall continue to exercise his functions until his successor has been elected

Article 79:
Before exercising his powers, the President shall take the following oath before the People's Assembly.

"I swear by Almighty Allah to uphold the republican system with loyality, to respect the Constitution and the law, to look after the interests of the people fully and to safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of the motherland"

Article 80:
The salary of the President of the Republic shall be fixed by law. Any amendment to the salary shall not come into force during the Presidential term in which it is decided upon. The President of the Republic may not receive any other salary or remuneration

Article 81:
During his term, the President of the Republic may not exercise any self-employed profession or undertake any commercial, financial or industrial business. Nor may he acquire or take on lease any State property, sell to or exchange with the State any property of his whatsoever

Article 82:
If on account of any temporary obstacle, the President is rendered unable to carry out his functions, he shall delegate his powers to the vice-president or the Prime Minister if there is no vice-president or, if available, he is unable to act in such capacity. The one who shall act on behalf of the President may not request any amendment to the Constitution or dissolve the People's Assembly or the Shura Council or to relieve the cabinet

Article 83:
In case of resignation, the President shall address the letter of resignation to the People's Assembly

Article 84:
In case vacancy of the Presidential office or the permanent disability of the President of the Republic, the Speaker of the People's Assembly shall temporarily assume the Presidency; and, if at that time, the People's Assembly is already dissolved, the President of the Supreme Constitutional Court shall take over the Presidency, provided, however, that neither shall nominate himself for the Presidency, subject to abidance by the ban stipulated in paragraph 2 of Article 82.

The People's Assembly shall then proclaim the vacancy of the office of President. The President of the Republic shall be chosen within a maximum period of sixty days from the day the Presidential office becomes vacant

Article 85:
Any charge against the President of high treason or of committing a criminal act shall be brought upon a proposal by at least one-third of the members of the People’s Assembly. No impeachment procedure shall be initiated except upon the approval of a majority of two-thirds of the Assembly members. The President shall cease to exercise his function as soon as an impeachment decision has been issued. The vice-president or, if there is no vice-president or, if available, he is unable to act in such capacity, the Prime Minister shall temporarily assume the Presidency, until a decision has been made on the impeachment, subject to abidance by the ban stipulated in paragraph 2 of Article 82 the ban stipulated in paragraph 2 of Article 82 . The President of the Republic shall be tried before an ad-hoc court, the composition, prosecution procedure and penalty of which shall be regulated by the law. Should he be convicted, the president shall be relieved of his post, without prejudice to other penalties

Chapter II: The Legislature

Article 86:
The People's Assembly shall exercise the legislative power and approve the overall policy of the State, the public plan of economic and social development and the overall budget of the State. It shall exercise control over the work of the executive authority in the manner prescribed by the Constitution

Article 87:
The law shall determine the constituencies into which the State shall be divided and the number of elected members of the People's Assembly must be at least 350 persons, of whom at least one half shall be workers and peasants elected by direct secret public balloting. The definition of worker and peasant shall be provided by law. The President of the Republic may appoint a number of members not exceeding ten

Article 88:
The conditions to be satisfied by members of the People's Assembly and provisions for election and referendum shall be defined by law.

Balloting shall be conducted on one single day. An independent and impartial higher committee shall supervise elections in the manner regulated by the law. The law shall set out the functions, method of formation and guarantees for the committee, which shall have among its members current and former members of judicial bodies. This committee shall form general committees to supervise elections in constituencies as well as committees to administer the balloting process and vote tallying and sorting committees. The general committees shall be composed of members of judicial bodies and vote tallying and sorting shall be made under the supervision of the general committees in accordance with the rules and procedures stipulated by the law

Article 89:
Employees of the State and of the public sector may run for membership in the People's Assembly.

The member of the People's Assembly shall devote himself on a full time basis to membership of the Assembly except in cases specified by the law.

His post or work shall be held over for him in accordance with the provisions of the law

Article 90:
The member of the People's Assembly shall take the following oath before the Assembly before entering upon his duties:

"I swear by Allah Almighty, to preserve the safety of the nation and the Republican regime, attend to the interests of the people and shall respect the Constitution and the law"

Article 91:
Members of the People's Assembly shall receive a remuneration determined by the law

Article 92:
The duration of the People's Assembly term is five Gregorian years from the date of its first meeting.

Elections for renewal of the Assembly shall take place within the sixty days preceding the termination of the term

Article 93:
The People's Assembly shall be the only authority competent to decide upon the validity of membership of its members.

The Court of Cassation shall be competent to scrutinize the validity of challenges submitted to the Assembly, upon referral thereto it by the Speaker of the Assembly.

Challenges shall be referred to the Court of Cassation within fifteen days from the date of coming to the knowledge of the Assembly. Scrutiny shall be completed within ninety days from the date of referral of challenge to the Court of Cassation.

The result of the scrutiny and the decision reached by the Court shall be submitted to the Assembly to decide upon the validity of the challenge within sixty days from the date of submission of the result of scrutiny to the Assembly.

Membership shall be deemed invalid only upon a decision taken by a majority of two-thirds of the Assembly members

Article 94:
If the seat of a member becomes vacant before the end of his term, the vacant position shall be filled in accordance with the law within sixty days from the date of notification to the Assembly of the occurrence of vacancy. The term of the new member shall be complementary to that of his predecessor

Article 95:
No member of the People's Assembly shall, during his tenure, purchase or rent any State property; lease or sell to or barter with the State any part of his property, or conclude a contract with the State in his capacity as vendor, supplier or contractor

Article 96:
Membership of the People's Assembly may be revoked only if he has lost confidence, consideration, any of the membership requirement or his status as a worker or peasant based on which he was elected or if he has violated the duties of his membership.

Decision on revoking membership shall be issued by a majority of two-thirds of the Assembly members

Article 97:
The People's Assembly alone may accept the resignation of its members

Article 98:
Members of the People's Assembly shall not be held to account for any opinions or thoughts expressed by them during the performance of their tasks in the Assembly or its committees

Article 99:
Excluding case of being caught red-handed in a crime, no member of the People's Assembly may be subject to criminal procedures without prior permission by the Assembly. If the Assembly is not in session, permission by the Speaker of the Assembly shall be taken. The Assembly shall be notified of the measures taken in its first subsequent session

Article 100:
The seat of the People's Assembly shall be Cairo.

However, in exceptional circumstances, at the request of the President of the Republic or the majority of the Assembly members it may meet another city.

Any meeting of the Assembly in other than its designated seat shall be deemed illegitimate and the resolutions passed therein shall be considered invalid

Article 101:
The President of the Republic shall convoke the People's Assembly for its ordinary annual session before the second Thursday of November.

If not convoked, the Assembly shall meet, by virtue of the Constitution, on the said day. The ordinary meeting session shall continue for at least seven months

Article 102:
The President of the Republic may call the People's Assembly to an extraordinary meeting, in case of necessity, or upon a request signed by a majority of the Assembly members. The President of the Republic shall announce the dismissal of the extraordinary meeting

Article 103:
The People's Assembly shall elect, in the first meeting of its ordinary annual session, a speaker and two deputy speakers for the term of the session.

If the seat of either becomes vacant, the Assembly shall elect a replacement, whose term will last until the end of his predecessor's

Article 104:
The People's Assembly shall lay down its own by-laws regulating its manner of practicing its functions

Article 105:
The People's Assembly shall exclusively keep order inside it.

The President of the Assembly shall be entrusted with this task

Article 106:
The meetings of the People's Assembly shall be in public.

However, a meeting in camera may be held at the request of the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister, or at least twenty of its members.

The Assembly shall then decide whether the debate on the question submitted thereto shall take place in a public meeting or in a meeting in camera

Article 107:
The meeting of the Assembly shall be not considered valid unless attended by the majority of its members.

In cases other than those requiring a majority, the Assembly shall adopt its resolution by an absolute majority of the members present.

Voting on draft laws shall be made on an article-by-article basis.

In case of a tie vote, the question on which the debate had taken place shall be rejected

Article 108:
The President of the Republic shall have the right, in case of necessity and under exceptional circumstances and, based on the authorization of the People's Assembly upon the approval of a majority of two thirds of its members, to issue resolutions having the force of law. The authorization shall be made for a limited period of time and shall define subjects of resolutions and the grounds upon which they are based.

The resolutions shall be submitted to the People's Assembly in the first meeting after the end of the authorization period.

If they are not submitted or if submitted but not approved by the Assembly, they shall cease to have the force of law

Article 109:
The President of the Republic and every member of the People's Assembly shall have the right to propose laws

Article 110:
Every draft law shall be referred to a committee of the Assembly which shall study and submit a report concerning it.

Draft laws presented by members of the People's Assembly shall not be referred to that committee unless first referred to a special committee which will study and give an opinion on the admissibility of their consideration by the Assembly and after the Assembly has decided to consider them

Article 111:
A draft law proposed by a member but rejected by the Assembly may not be presented again in the course of the same session

Article 112:
The President of the Republic shall have the right to promulgate or veto laws

Article 113:
Should the President of the Republic veto a draft law ratified by the People's Assembly, he shall refer it back to the Assembly within thirty days from notification thereto by the Assembly.

If the draft law is not referred back within this period, it shall be considered a law and shall be promulgated.

If it is referred back to the Assembly on the said date and approved once again by a majority of two-thirds of the members, it shall be considered a law and shall be promulgated

Article 114:
The People's Assembly shall approve the public economic and social development plan. The manner of the preparation of the plan and of its submission to the People's Assembly shall be determined by the law

Article 115:
The draft public budget shall be submitted to the People's Assembly at least three months before the beginning of the fiscal year. It shall not be considered in effect unless approved thereby. The draft budget shall be put to vote on a chapter-by chapter basis. The People's Assembly may modify the expenditures contained in the draft budget, excluding those proposed to honor a specific liability on the State. Should the modification result in an increase in total expenditure, the People's Assembly shall agree with the government on means to secure resources of revenues so as to re-balance between revenues and expenditures. The budget shall be issued by a law, which may include modification in any existing law to the extent necessary to realize such balance. If the new budget is not be approved before the beginning of the new fiscal year, the earlier budget shall remain in effect until the new budget has been approved.

The law shall define the method of budget preparation as well as the fiscal year

Article 116:
The approval of the People's Assembly shall be considered necessary for the transfer of any funds from one chapter of the budget to another, as well as for any expenditure not included therein or in excess of its estimates, and this shall be issued by a law

Article 117:
The provisions regulating the budgets and accounts of public enterprises and authorities shall be prescribed by law

Article 118:
The final account of the State budget shall be submitted to the People's Assembly within a period not exceeding six months from the end of the fiscal year.

It shall be put to vote on a chapter-by-chapter basis and shall be issued by a law.

The annual report of the Central Auditing Authority and its observations shall be submitted to the People's Assembly. The Assembly has the right to request the Central Auditing Organization for any data or other pertinent reports

Article 119:
The imposition, modification or abolition of public taxes cannot be effected except in the cases decreed by law.

No one may be exempted from their payment except in the cases specified by the law.

No one may be required to pay additional taxes or imposts except in the cases specified by law

Article 120:
The basic rules for collection of public funds and the procedure for their disbursement shall be regulated by the law

Article 121:
The Executive Authority shall not contract a loan or commit itself to a project entailing expenditure of funds from the State Treasury in the course of a subsequent period, unless approved by the People's Assembly

Article 122:
The law shall determine rules governing the granting of salaries, pensions, indemnities, subside and bonuses from the State Treasury. It shall also regulate cases for exception from such rules, and the authorities in charge of application

Article 123:
The law shall determine rules and procedures for granting concessions relating to the exploitation of the natural wealth resources and public utilities. It shall define cases for disposal, free of charge, of state-owned real estate properties or the assignment of moveable properties of the State as well as the rules and procedures relating thereto

Article 124:
Every member of the People's Assembly shall be entitled to address questions to the Prime Minister or any of his deputies or the ministers or their deputies concerning matters within their respective jurisdiction.

The Prime Minister, his deputies, the ministers and persons delegated by them shall answer the questions put to them by members.

The member may withdraw his question at any time and this same question may not be transformed into an interpellation in the same session

Article 125:
Every member of the People's Assembly shall be entitled to address interpellations to the Prime Minister or his deputies or the Ministers or their deputies concerning matters within their respective jurisdiction.

Debate on an interpellation shall take place at least seven days after its submission, except in the cases of urgency as decided by the Assembly and with the government's consent

Article 126:
The Ministers shall be responsible collectively for the general policy of the State before the People's Assembly; also every Minister shall be responsible for the acts of his Ministry.

The People's Assembly may decide to withdraw its confidence from any of the Prime Minister's deputies or from any of the Ministers or their deputies.

A motion of no confidence shall not be submitted except after an interpellation.

Such a motion should be proposed by one-tenth of the Assembly's members.

The Assembly should not decide on such a motion until after at least three days from the date of its presentation.

Withdrawal of confidence shall be made by the majority of the members of the Assembly

Article 127:
The People's Assembly may, at the request one-tenth of its members, hold the Prime Minister accountable. Such a decision should be taken by the majority of members of the Assembly. It may be taken only subject to an interpellation addressed to the government, and after at least three days from the date of its presentation.

If such accountability is determined, the Assembly shall submit a report to the President, including the elements of the subject, the conclusions reached on the matter and the underlying reasons.

The President may accept the resignation of the government or return such a report to the Assembly within ten days. Should the Assembly, by a majority of two thirds of its members, once again endorse its decision, the President shall accept the resignation of the government. If the Assembly rejects a proposal for holding the Prime Minister accountable, withdrawal of confidence may not be further requested in a matter that had been decided upon by the Assembly in the same session

Article 128:
If the Assembly withdraws confidence from any of the Prime Minister's deputies or of the Ministers or of their deputies, they shall resign their office. The Prime Minister shall submit his resignation to the President of the Republic if he is found accountable before the People's Assembly

Article 129:
Any twenty members, at least, of the People's Assembly may ask for the discussion of a public question to obtain clarification on the government's policy regarding such a question

Article 130:
The members of the People's Assembly shall be entitled to express their interest in public questions before the Prime Minister or any of his deputies or of the Ministers

Article 131:
The People's Assembly shall form an ad hoc committee or entrust any of its committees with the scrutiny of the activities of any of administrative department or the public corporation or any administrative or executive organ or any public enterprise, for the purpose of finding facts and informing the Assembly as to the actual financial or administrative or economic position or for conducting investigations into a subject related to one of the said activities. In the course of its work, such a committee shall be entitled to collect whatever evidence it deems necessary and to summon whom it deems necessary to them. All executive and administrative bodies shall respond to demands by the committee and put under its disposal all the documents and evidence it asks for this purpose

Article 132:
At the inaugural meeting of the ordinary session of the People's Assembly, the President of the Republic shall give a statement of the general policy of the State. He shall also give other statements before the Assembly. The Assembly is entitled to discuss the statement of the President of the Republic

Article 133:
The Prime Minister shall submit to the People's Assembly his cabinet program within sixty days of the date of its formation or in its First meeting should it not be in session. If the Assembly does approve this program by the majority of its members, the President may accept the resignation of the cabinet. Should the Assembly not approve the program of the new cabinet, the President of the Republic may dissolve the Assembly or accept the resignation of the Cabinet. The Prime Minister and the ministers and other members of the government may deliver statements before the People's Assembly or any of its committees as regards a subject matter within its competency. The Assembly or the committee shall discuss this statement and express any remarks regarding it

Article 134:
The Prime Minister, his deputies, the Ministers and their deputies may become members of the People's Assembly. Those who are not members may attend the sessions and committees of the Assembly

Article 135:
The Prime Minister and Ministers shall be heard in the People's Assembly and its committees whenever they request to speak.

They may be assisted by high-ranking officials.

A Minister shall have no counted vote when votes are taken, unless he is a member

Article 136:
The President of the Republic may not dissolve the People's Assembly unless it is necessary.

Should the Assembly be dissolved over a certain matter, the new Assembly may not be dissolved on the same matter.

The decision shall include a call to voters for new elections of the People's Assembly latest within sixty days from the date of issuing the decision of dissolution. The new Assembly shall convene within the ten days following the completion of elections

Chapter III: The Executive

Section I: The President of the Republic

Article 137:
The President of the Republic shall assume executive power and shall exercise it in the manner stipulated in the Constitution

Article 138:
The President of the Republic, in conjunction with the government, shall lay down the general policy of the State and supervise its implementation in the manner prescribed in the Constitution.

The President of the Republic shall exercise the competencies stipulated in Articles 144, 145, 146, 147 subject to approval by the Cabinet and the competencies stipulated in articles 108, 148, 151 (second paragraph) after taking its opinion

Article 139:
The President may appoint one or more vice- presidents, define their mandates and relieve them of their posts.

The rules relating to the calling into account of the President of the Republic shall be applicable to vice-presidents

Article 140:
Before exercising his functions, the Vice-President shall take the following oath before the President of the Republic:

"I swear by Almighty Allah to uphold the Republican system with loyalty, to respect the Constitution and the law, to look after the interests of the people fully and to safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of the motherland"

Article 141:
The President shall appoint and remove from office the Prime Minister. Appointment and removal from office of deputy- prime ministers, ministers and deputy-ministers and relieving them of their posts shall be made by a presidential decree subject to consultation with the Prime Minister

Article 142:
The President of the Republic shall have the right to call a meeting of the Council of Ministers and to attend its meeting.

He shall also preside over the meetings he attends.

He shall be entitled to demand reports from the Ministers

Article 143:
The President of the Republic shall appoint civil and military officials and diplomatic representatives, and dismiss them in the manner prescribed by the law.

He shall also accredit the diplomatic representatives of foreign states

Article 144:
The President of the Republic shall issue necessary regulations for the enforcement of laws, in such a manner that would not involve any modification, disruption, or exemption from enforcement.

He shall have the right to vest others with authority to issue them. The law may designate whoever issues decisions the necessary for implementation

Article 145:
The President of the Republic shall issue regulations of discipline

Article 146:
The President of Republic shall issue the decisions necessary for the creation and organization of public services and interests

Article 147:
In case it becomes necessary, when the People's Assembly is not in session, to take undelayable measures, the President of the Republic shall issue decrees in their respect, which shall have the force of law.

Such decisions shall be submitted to the People's Assembly within fifteen days from their date of issuance if the Assembly is standing.

In case of dissolution or suspension of the Assembly, they shall be submitted at its first meeting.

Should they not be submitted, decrees having the force of laws shall retroactively cease to have legal effect without need to issue a resolution in this respect.

Should they be submitted but not ratified they shall retroactively cease to have legal effect, unless the Assembly has considered them as valid and effective for the preceding period or has otherwise resolved their resulting effects

Article 148:
The President of the Republic shall proclaim a state of emergency in the manner prescribed by the law.

Such proclamation must be submitted to the People's Assembly within the following fifteen days so that the Assembly may take a decision thereon. In case of the dissolution of the People's Assembly, the matter shall be submitted to the new Assembly at its first meeting.

In all cases, the proclamation of the state of emergency shall be for a limited period, which may not be extended unless by approval of the Assembly

Article 149:
The President of Republic shall have the right to grant amnesty or commute a sentence. As for universal amnesty, it shall be granted only by virtue of a law

Article 150:
The President of Republic shall be the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. He shall be the authority to declare war, subject to approval by the People's Assembly

Article 151:
The President of Republic shall conclude treaties and communicate them to the People's Assembly, accompanied with suitable clarification.

They shall have the force of law upon being concluded, ratified and published according to established procedure.

However, peace treaties, alliance pacts, commercial and maritime and all treaties resulting on modifications in the State territory, related to sovereignty rights, or change State Treasury with certain charges nor provided for in the budget, shall require approval by the People's Assembly

Article 152:
The President of the Republic may call the people for referendum on important matters affecting the supreme interests of the country

Section II: The Government

Article 153:
The government shall be the supreme executive and administrative authority of the State. It shall consist of the Prime Minister, his deputies, the Ministers and their deputies. The Prime Minister shall supervise the work of the government

Article 154:
An appointed Minister or deputy-Minister should be an Egyptian, not less than 35 Gregorian years of age, and should enjoy full civil and political rights

Article 155:
Before exercising the functions of their posts, the members of the Cabinet shall take the following oath before the President of the Republic:

"I swear by Almighty Allah to uphold the Republican system with loyalty, to respect the Constitution and the law, to look after the interests of the people fully, and to safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of the motherland"

Article 156:
The Cabinet shall exercise the following functions in particular:

a) Lay down the public policy of the State, control its implementation in collaboration with the President of the Republic in accordance with laws and Presidential decrees.

b) Direct, coordinate and follow up the works of the ministries, their affiliated organs, and the public organizations and corporations.

c) Issue administrative and executive decisions in accordance with the laws and decrees, and supervise their implementation.

d) Prepare the draft laws and decrees.

e) Prepare the draft general budget of the State.

f) Prepare the overall plan.

g) Contract and grant loans in accordance with the rules of the Constitution.

h) Supervise the implementation of laws, maintain State security and protect the rights of the citizens and the interests of the State

Article 157:
The Minister shall be the administrative supreme chief of his ministry. He shall draw up and implement his ministry's policy in the framework of the State's public policy

Article 158:
During the term of his office, the Minister shall not practice a self-employed or any commercial, financial or industrial enterprise, nor buy or rent any State property, or lease or sell to or barter with the State any of his own property

Article 159:
The President of the Republic and the People's Assembly shall have the right to bring a minister to count for crimes committed thereby during the performance, or because of, the duties of his post.

The decision of the People's Assembly to charge a minister shall be adopted upon a proposal submitted by at least one-fifth of its members.

Indictment shall be issued only by a majority of two-thirds of the members of the Assembly

Article 160:
Any minister indicted shall cease to function until his case has been decided. The termination of his services shall not preclude legal action being taken or pursued against him.

Trial of a minister, procedures and guarantees of trial and indictment shall be made in the manner prescribed by the law.

These rules shall apply to the deputy-Ministers

Section III: The Local Administration

Article 161:
The Arab Republic of Egypt shall be divided into administrative units that are considered as judicial persons, including governorates, cities and villages.

Other administrative units that are judicial persons may be established whenever required for public interest.

The law guarantees support for decentralization and regulates means of empowering administrative units, including the provision, promotion and good administration of local services and utilities

Article 162:
Local People's Councils shall be gradually devolution, on the level of administrative units, by direct election, providing that at last half of their members shall be workers and peasants.

The law shall define for the gradual devolution of authority to them.

Heads and deputy-heads, of the Councils shall be selected from among their members by means of election

Article 163:
The law shall define method of formation, competencies, financial resources, guarantees for members, relations with the People's Assembly and the government, and the role of the Local People's Councils, in preparing and implementing the development plan and in controlling various activities

Section IV: The National Specialized Councils

Article 164:
Specialized Councils shall be established on the national level to assist in laying down the public policy of the State in all fields of national endeavor.

These councils are to be affiliated to the President of the Republic.

A Presidential decree shall determine the formation and functions of each council

Chapter IV: The Judiciary Authority

Article 165:
The Judiciary Authority shall be independent.

It shall be exercised by courts of justice of different kinds and classes, which shall issue their judgments in accordance with the law

Article 166:
Judges shall be independent, subject to no other authority but the law.

No authority may intervene in cases or in justice affairs

Article 167:
The law shall determine judiciary authorities and their functions, organize the way of their formation, define conditions and procedures for the appointment and transfer of their members

Article 168:
Judges shall not be removed from office.

The law shall regulate disciplinary actions with regard to them

Article 169:
Sessions of courts shall be made in public, unless a court decides to hold them in camera, for considerations of public order or morality.

In all cases, judgments shall be pronounced in public sessions

Article 170:
The people shall contribute in administering justice, in accordance with the manner and the limits prescribed by the law

Article 171:
The law shall regulate the organization of the State Security Courts, and define their competencies and requirement to be satisfied by those who occupy the office judge in them

Article 172:
The State Council shall be an independent judiciary body and shall have the competence to decide in administrative disputes, and disciplinary actions.

The law shall determine its other competencies

Article 173:
Every judicial body shall administer its own affairs. A council, comprising chiefs of judicial bodies and chaired by the President, shall be formed to administer their common affairs. The law shall define its composition, competencies, and working modalities

Chapter V: Supreme Constitutional Court

Article 174:
The Supreme Constitutional Court shall be an independent, self-standing judiciary body, in the Arab Republic of Egypt, seated in Cairo

Article 175:
The Supreme Constitutional Court shall exclusively undertake the judicial control of the constitutionality of the laws and regulations, and shall undertake in the manner prescribed by the law the interpretation of legislative texts.

The law shall determine the other competencies of the court, and regulate the procedure to be followed before it

Article 176:
The law shall regulate the manner of the formation of the Supreme Constitutional Court, and define requirements to be satisfied by its members, rights and immunities

Article 177:
Members of the Supreme Constitutional Court shall not be removed from office.

The Court shall call to account its members, in the manner prescribed by the law

Article 178:
The judgment issued by the Supreme Constitutional Court in constitutional cases and its decisions on the interpretation of legislative texts, shall be published in the Official Gazette.

The law shall regulate the effects resulting from a decision on the unconstitutionality of a legislative text

Chapter VI: Combating Terror

Article 179:
The State shall seek to safeguard public security to counter dangers of terror. The law shall, under the supervision of the judiciary, regulate special provisions related to evidence and investigation procedures required to counter those dangers. The procedure stipulated in paragraph 1 of Articles 41 and 44 and paragraph 2 of Article 45 of the Constitution shall in no way preclude such counter-terror action.

The President may refer any terror crime to any judiciary body stipulated in the Constitution or the law

Chapter VII: Armed Forces and the National Defense Council

Article 180:
The State alone shall establish the Armed Forces which shall belong to the people. Their duty shall be to protect the country, its territorial integrity and security. No organization or group may establish military or para-military formations

Article 181:
Public mobilization shall be organized in accordance with the law

Article 182:
A council shall be established, the National Defense Council, to be presided by the President of the Republic, which shall undertake the examination of the matter pertaining to the methods of ensuring the safety and security of the country.

The law shall prescribe its other competences

Article 183:
The law shall regulate the military judiciary, and define their competences in the framework of the principles in the Constitution

Chapter VIII: The Police

Article 184:
Police Authority shall be a statutory civil body.

Its Supreme Chief shall be the President of the Republic.

The Police Authority shall perform its duty in service of the people, maintain peace and security for citizens, maintain order, public security and morality, and undertake the implementation of the duties imposed upon it by laws and regulations, in the manner prescribed by the law

Part VI: General and Transitional Provisions

Article 185:
The city of Cairo shall be the capital of the Arab Republic of Egypt

Article 186:
The law shall prescribe the national flag and the provisions relating thereto, as well as the State emblem and the provisions relating thereto

Article 187:
Provisions of the laws shall apply only from the date of their entry into force, and shall have no retroactive effect.

However, provisions to the contrary may be made, in other than criminal matters, with the approval of the majority of the members of the People's Assembly

Article 188:
All laws shall be published in the Official Gazette within two weeks from the date of their issuance.

They shall be put in force after a month following the date of their publication unless another date is fixed for that

Article 189:
The President of the Republic, as well as the People's Assembly, may request the amendment of one or more of the Constitution articles.

The articles to be revised and the reasons justifying such amendment shall be specified in the request for amendment.

In case the request emanates from the People's Assembly, it should be signed by at least one third of the Assembly members.

In all cases, the Assembly shall discuss the amendment in principle, and the decision in this respect shall be taken by the majority of its members.

If the request is rejected, the amendment of the same particular articles may not be requested again before the expiration of one year from the date of such rejection.

If the People's Assembly approves the principle of revision, the articles requested to be mended shall be discussed after two months from the date of the said approval.

If the modification is approved by two-thirds of the members of the Assembly, it shall be referred to the people for a plebiscite.

If the amendment is approved, it shall be considered in force from the date of the announcement of the result of the plebiscite

Article 190:
The term of the present President of the Republic shall be terminated at the end of six years from the date of announcing his election as President of the Arab Republic of Egypt

Article 191:
All the provisions of the laws and regulations prior to the proclamation of this Constitution shall remain valid and in force.

However, they may be repealed or amended in this Constitution

Article 192:
Wherever occurring in the Constitution with regard to the election of the President, the word "elections" shall replace the world "referendum"

Article 193:
This Constitution shall be in force as from the date of announcing the approval of the people, in this respect, in the plebiscite

Part VII: New Rulings

Chapter I: The Shura Council

Article 194:
The Shura Council shall have the competence to make such studies and proposals as it may deem necessary to promote national unity and social peace and to protect the basic constituents and supreme values of society, public rights, freedoms and duties.

Approval by the Council shall be required for the following:

1. Proposals of amending one or more articles of the Constitution provided that the discussion and approval of amendment therein shall be subject to the provisions of Article 189.

2. Draft laws complementary to the Constitution stipulated in Articles 5, 6,48, 62, 76, 85, 87, 88, 89, 91, 160, 163, 167, 168, 170, 171, 172, 173, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 183, 196, 197, 198, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210 and 211 of the Constitution.

3. Treaties of peace and alliance and all treaties conducive to changes in State territory or related to sovereignty rights.

Should dispute arise between the People's Assembly and the Shura Council over these subjects, the Speaker of the People's Assembly shall submit the matter to a joint committee to be formed comprising the speakers of both councils and seven members of each council to be selected by its respective general committee in order to propose a text for provisions subject of dispute.

The final text agreed upon by the committee shall be reviewed by both assemblies. Should the text be disapproved by either council, the matter shall be submitted to both councils in a joint meeting under the chairmanship of the People's Assembly Speaker to be held at the venue specified thereby and attended by at least the majority of members of both councils. If the committee does not reach a unified text, the two assemblies may, in their joint meeting, approve the text approved by either council.

Subject to the special majority as required by the Constitution, decision in each of both councils as well as in their joint meeting, shall be made by the majority of members present. In all cases, voting shall be made without discussion

Article 195:
The Shura Council shall be consulted in the following:

1. draft public plan for social and economic development.

2. draft laws referred thereto by the President, and

3. matters related to public State policy or Arab or foreign affairs policy referred to the Council by the President, and

The Assembly shall communicate its opinion such matters to the President and the People's Assembly

Article 196:
The Shura Council shall be composed of a number of members defined by the law, not less than 132 members.

Two thirds of the members shall be elected by direct secret public balloting, half of whom at least must be workers and farmers.

The President of the Republic shall appoint the other third

Article 197:
The law shall determine the electoral constituencies of the Shoura Assembly, the number of members in every constituency, and the necessary conditions stipulated in the elected or appointed members of the Shoura Assembly

Article 198:
The term of membership of the Shura Council is six years, whereas renewed election and appointment of 50% of the total number of members, whether elected or appointed, is every three years as defined by law.

It is always possible to re-elect or re-appoint those whose membership has expired

Article 199:
The Shura Council shall elect a speaker and two deputy-speakers at its first ordinary annual session for a period of three years.

If one of these offices becomes vacant, the Assembly shall elect a successor for the rest of the term

Article 200:
No member may hold office in both People's Assembly and the Shura Council at one and the same time

Article 201:
The Prime Minister and his deputies, the ministers and government officials shall not be held accountable to the Shura Council

Article 202:
The President of the Republic has the right to make a statement upon the general policy of the State or upon any other matter before a joint meeting of the People's Assembly and the Shura Council, headed by the Speaker of the People's Assembly.

The President of the Republic has the right to make whatever statements he wishes before the Shura Assembly

Article 203:
The Prime Minister and the ministers and other government officials may make statements before the Shura Assembly or before one of its committees upon a subject that comes within his competence.

The Prime Minister and his deputies and other government officials shall be heard by the Shura Assembly and its committees upon their request, and they may seek the assistance of any government official, as they see fit.

However, the vote of the minister or government official shall not be held as upon any count of votes unless he is a member

Article 204:
The President of the Republic may not dissolve the Shura Assembly except when necessary, while such a decision should comprise a call to hold new elections for the Shura Assembly within a period of sixty days from the date of its dissolution.

The Assembly shall hold its first meeting ten days from the date of its election

Article 205:
The provisions of the following articles of the Constitution shall apply to the Shura Council: 62, 88/ paragraph 2, 89, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 104, 105, 106, 107, 129, 130, 134), insofar as they do conflict with the stipulations cited in this part. The Shura Council and its Speaker shall exercise the competencies specified in the afore-mentioned articles

Chapter II: The Press

Article 206:
The Press is a popular, independent authority exercising its mission in accordance with the stipulations of the Constitution and the law

Article 207:
The Press shall exercise its true mission freely and independently in the service of society through all means of expression.

It shall thus express trends of public opinion, while contributing to its formation and orientation within the framework of the basic components of society, the safeguard of the liberties, rights and public duties and respect of the sanctity of the private lives of citizens, as stipulated in the Constitution and defined by law

Article 208:
The freedom of the press is guaranteed and press censorship is forbidden. Also forbidden is to threaten, suppress, or foreclose a newspaper through administrative measures, as stipulated in the Constitution and defined by law

Article 209:
The freedom to issue newspapers and their ownership by public or private or political judicial persons or by political parties is safeguarded in accordance with the law.

The financing and ownership of newspapers are subject to the supervision of the people, as stipulated in the Constitution and defined by law

Article 210:
Journalists have the right to obtain news and information according to the regulations set by law.

Their activities are not subject to any authority other than the law

Article 211:
The Supreme Council of the Press shall deal with matters concerning the press.

The law shall define its composition, competencies and its relationship with the State authorities.

The Supreme Press Council shall exercise its competencies with a view to consolidating the freedom and independence of the press, to uphold the basic foundations of society, and to guarantee sound of national unity and social peace as stipulated in the constitution and defined by law

Constitution of 2012
30 November 2012
[Translated by International IDEA]

Preamble

We, the people of Egypt,

In the name and with the assistance of God, the most merciful and gracious,

This is our Constitution, the document of the January 25 Revolution, the Revolution which was initiated by our youth, which our people rallied around, and which the Armed Forces sided with.

After we rejected, in Tahrir Square and across the country, all forms of injustice, oppression, tyranny, despotism, exclusion, plunder, corruption and monopoly.

We publicly demanded our full rights to “a decent life, freedom, social justice and human dignity”, with the blood of our martyrs, the pain of our injured, the dreams of our children and the struggle of our men and women.

We reclaimed the place of our great civilization and of our thriving history; we established the oldest state on the banks of the immortal Nile, which witnessed the meaning of citizenship, equality and non-discrimination. It presented to the world the first written alphabets, launched the belief in monotheism and cognizance of the Creator, embraced the God’s prophets and His divine Messages, and decorated the pages of human history with creativity.

In continuation of our immaculate revolution which united the Egyptian people over one demand, to build a modern democratic state, we announce our determination towards the following principles:

1. The people are the source of all authorities; they establish them, they derive their legitimacy from them and are subject to their will. The responsibilities and competencies of the authorities are endowed to them in trusteeship, and are not privileges that serve to immunize authorities.

2. A democratic system of government which entrenches the peaceful transfer of power, deepens political and partisan pluralism, and guarantees fair elections and the people’s contribution to the decision-making process.

3. The dignity of the individual is part and parcel of the dignity of the homeland. And a country in which women are not respected has no dignity; for women are the sisters of men and partners in national gains and responsibilities.

4. Freedom is a right, in thought, creativity, opinion, housing, ownership, residence and travel, the origins of which the Creator designed in the universe’s motion and human nature.

5. Equality and equal opportunities are for all: male and female citizens; for there is no discrimination, nepotism, or favoritism in rights and duties.

6. The rule of law is the basis of the individual’s freedom, the legitimacy of the authorities, and the State’s compliance with the law; for no voice tops that of the force of justice; and the judiciary is independent and proud and holds the supreme mission of protecting the Constitution, establishing the balance of justice, and preserving rights and freedoms.

7. National unity is an obligation, and the cornerstone for building the Egyptian modern State and its soaring progress and development. It is entrenched in the values of tolerance, moderation and centrism, and the guarantee of rights and freedoms to all citizens without discrimination between the people.

8. Defending the homeland is a duty and an honor; and our armed forces are a patriotic, professional and neutral institution that do not interfere in political affairs and is the protective shield of the country.

9. Security is a great blessing watched over by the police that work to serve and protect the people and enforce justice; for there can be no justice without protection, and no protection without security institutions which respect human dignity and the rule of law.

10. Unity is the hope of the Arab nation, a call from history, an invitation to the future, and a necessity for destiny. It is reinforced by complementarity and brotherhood with the countries of the Nile Basin and of the Muslim world, a natural extension to the genius of Egypt’s position and place on the universe’s map.

11. Egypt’s pioneering intellectual and cultural role is an embodiment of its soft power and an example of the freedom of its innovators, intellectuals, universities, scholarly and linguistic academies, research centers, press, art, literature, media, its patriotic Church and its honorable Al-Azhar, which throughout its history has been the backbone of the homeland’s identity, a guardian of the immortal Arabic language and the revered Islamic Sharia, and a beacon for moderate enlightened thought.

We, the masses of the people of Egypt,

out of faith in God and His heavenly messages,

in recognition of the rights of the country and the nation due upon us,

in awareness of our national and human responsibilities,

pledge to commit to the principles laid out in this Constitution, which we accept and grant to ourselves, affirming our determination to uphold and defend it, protect and respect it by all state authorities.

Part I: State and Society

Chapter 1: Political principles

Article 1:
Nature of the Republic, and of the Egyptian people

The Arab Republic of Egypt is an independent sovereign state, united and indivisible, and its system is democratic. The Egyptian people are part of the Arab and Islamic nations, are proud of belonging to the Nile Valley, to the African continent and to Asia. The Egyptian people contribute to human civilization

Article 2: Religion, language and source of legislation
Islam is the religion of the state and Arabic is its official language. The principles of Islamic Sharia are the principal source of legislation

Article 3: Christian and Jewish religious affairs
The principles of Christian and Jewish laws are the main source of legislation for followers of Christianity and Judaism in matters pertaining to personal status, religious affairs and nomination of spiritual leaders

Article 4: Al-Azhar
Al-Azhar is an encompassing independent Islamic institution, with exclusive competence over its own affairs. It is responsible for preaching Islam, theology and the Arabic language in Egypt and throughout the world. Al-Azhar’s Council of Senior Scholars is to be consulted in matters relating to Islamic Sharia.

The state ensures sufficient funds for Al-Azhar to achieve its objectives.

Al-Azhar’s Grand Sheikh is independent and cannot be dismissed. The method of appointing the Grand Sheikh from among members of the Council of Senior Scholars is to be determined by law.

The foregoing is regulated by law

Article 5: Sovereignty
Sovereignty belongs to the people. The people exercise and protect sovereignty, and safeguard their national unity. The people are the source of power. This is as provided in this Constitution

Article 6: Democratic principles
The political system is based on the principles of democracy and consultation, citizenship (under which all citizens are equal in rights and public duties), political and multi-party pluralism, the peaceful transfer of power, the separation and balance of powers, the rule of law, and respect for human rights and freedoms. All of the foregoing is as provided in the Constitution.

It is prohibited to form a political party that discriminates between citizens, whether on the basis of gender, origin or religion

Article 7: The duty to safeguard national security and conscription
Safeguarding national security, defending the motherland and protecting its soil is an honour and a sacred duty. Conscription is obligatory and is organized by law

Chapter 2: Social and ethical principles

Article 8: Social justice, equality and freedom
The state guarantees the means to achieve justice, equality and freedom, and is committed to facilitating the channels of charity, social support and solidarity between members of society. The state ensures the protection of persons, dignity and property, and works toward achieving sufficiency for all citizens. The foregoing is within the limits of the law

Article 9: Safety, security and equal opportunity for all
The state commits to ensuring safety, security and equal opportunity for all citizens without discrimination

Article 10: Family as a basis of society
The family is the basis of society and is based on religion, morality and patriotism.

The state and society oversee the commitment to the genuine character of the Egyptian family, its cohesion and stability, and the consolidation and protection of its moral values. The foregoing is as organised by law.

The state guarantees maternal and child services free of charge, and guarantees the reconciliation between the duties of a woman toward her family and her work.

The state provides special care and protection to breadwinning and divorced women as well as widows

Article 11: Ethics, public morality and public order
The state safeguards ethics, public morality and public order, a high level of education and of religious and patriotic values, scientific knowledge, Arab culture, and the historical and cultural heritage of the people. The foregoing is in accordance with the law

Article 12: Cultural and linguistic characteristics of society
The state protects the cultural and linguistic characteristics of society, and works towards the Arabization of education, science and knowledge

Article 13: Institution of civil titles
The institution of civil titles is prohibited

Chapter 3: Economic Principles

Article 14: The National economy
The national economy aims to achieve a comprehensive, sustainable development plan, improve living standards, achieve prosperity, eliminate poverty and unemployment, increase work opportunities, production and gross national product.

The development plan works to establish social justice and cooperation, to ensure equitable distribution, to protect consumer rights, and to safeguard the rights of workers. The development plan works towards ensuring that capital and labor share the burden of development costs, and the equitable distribution of revenue.

Wages are linked to production, the income gap shall be bridged, a minimum wage that guarantees a decent standard of living for all citizens shall be established, and a maximum wage in civil service positions is established with exceptions regulated by law

Article 15: Agriculture
Agriculture is an essential asset of the national economy. The state commits to protecting and increasing farmland, and works to develop crop and plant varieties, to develop and protect animal breeds and fisheries, to achieve food security, to provide the requirements of agricultural production, its good management and marketing, and support agricultural industries.

The law organizes the use of state land, in such a way as to achieve social justice, and protect farmers and agricultural labour from exploitation

Article 16: Development of the countryside and of the desert
The state is committed to the development of the countryside and the desert, and works to raise the standard of living of farmers and inhabitants of the desert

Article 17: Industry
Industry is an essential component of the national economy. The state protects strategic industries, support industrial development, and ensures the national adoption of new technologies and their implementation.

The state fosters small and handicraft industries

Article 18: Natural resources and the disposition of state property
The state’s natural resources belong to the people, who have a right to their revenues. The state commits to preserving such resources, to their sound exploitation, and to take into consideration the rights of future generations.

It is prohibited to dispose of state property, or to grant the right to privilege to exploit such property, or to grant a concession to a public utility, except as permitted by law.

All capital that does not have an owner belongs to the state

Article 19: The Nile River and water resources
The Nile River and water resources are a national wealth. The state is committed to conserving and developing them, and preventing abuse. The use of such resources is organized by law

Article 20: The protection of coasts, seas and waterways
The state commits to protecting its coasts, seas, waterways and lakes, to maintaining monuments and nature reserves, and to removing any encroachments

Article 21: The ownership of property
The state guarantees and protects the legitimate ownership of all kinds of public, cooperative and private property and endowments, in accordance with what the law organises

Article 22: The inviolability of public funds
Public funds are inviolable and the state and society have a national duty to safeguard them

Article 23: Cooperatives
The state sponsors and supports cooperatives in all forms and guarantees their independence

Article 24: Private property
Private property is protected and has a function in the service of the national economy without deviation or monopoly. The right to inherit property is guaranteed. Private property may not be sequestrated except in cases specified by law, and with a court order. Ownership of property may not be confiscated except for the public good and with just compensation paid in advance.

The foregoing is organized by law

Article 25: Charitable endowments
The state is committed to reviving and encouraging the system of charitable endowments.

The law organizes endowments, the manner in which they are established, the management of its finances, their investments and the distribution of proceeds to the beneficiaries, according to the terms of the trustee

Article 26: Taxation
Social justice is the foundation of taxation and other public finance duties.

Public taxes cannot be established, modified or cancelled except by law. There can be no exemptions except in cases prescribed by law. It is prohibited to require anyone to pay additional taxes or fees except within the limits of the law

Article 27: Workers’ share in management
Workers will share in the management and profits of enterprises. They are committed to the development of production, to protecting its means and to the implementation of its strategy in their production units, in accordance with the law.

Workers’ representatives may constitute up to 50 percent of the members of the boards of directors of public sector units. The law guarantees that small farmers and small craftsmen’s representatives should constitute no less than 80 percent of the boards of directors of agricultural and industrial cooperatives

Article 28: Savings
Saving is encouraged by the state. The state safeguards savings, as well as insurance and pension funds.

This is organized by law

Article 29: Nationalisation
Nationalization is allowed except for the public interest, based on a law and against fair compensation

Article 30: Confiscation of property
Public confiscation of property is prohibited.

Private confiscation is prohibited except based on a court judgment

Part II: Rights and Freedoms

Chapter 1: Personal rights

Article 31: Dignity and the prohibition against insults
Dignity is the right of every human being. The state and society guarantee respect for dignity and its protection.

Insulting or showing contempt toward any human being is prohibited

Article 32: Nationality
Egyptian nationality is a right. It is organized by law

Article 33: Equality in public rights and duties
All citizens are equal before the law. They have equal public rights and duties. There can be no discrimination between them in that regard

Article 34: Personal freedom
Personal freedom is a natural right. It is safeguarded and inviolable

Article 35: Due process
Except in cases of flagrante delicto, no person may be arrested, searched, detained, prevented from free movement or prevented from exercising his freedoms except under a justified court order that will require an investigation.

Any person whose freedom has been restricted for these reasons must be informed of the reasons in writing within 12 hours, and be presented to the investigating authority within 24 hours from the time in which his freedom was restricted. He can only be interrogated in the presence of his lawyer. He will be provided with a lawyer when needed.

All persons whose freedoms have been restricted, and others, have the right of appeal to the courts against the measure of arrest. The matter must be decided within a week. If the matter is not decided within a week, release becomes imperative.

The law organizes the rules for temporary detention, its duration and its causes, and the cases in which an individual is entitled to compensation, whether for temporary detention or for a sentence carried out that a court final ruling has revoked

Article 36: Treatment during arrest or detention
Any person arrested, detained or whose freedom is restricted in any way, is treated in a manner preserving his dignity. He may not be tortured, nor may he be compelled, nor may he be physically or morally harmed.

Individuals can only be detained or arrested in places that are humanely and hygienically suitable, and subject to judicial supervision.

The violation of any of the foregoing is an offense punishable by law.

Any statement proved to have been made by a person under any of the aforementioned forms of duress, or pursuant to a threat, is considered invalid and cannot be relied upon

Article 37: Prison
Prison is a place of discipline, correction and reform. It is subject to judicial supervision. Anything that violates human dignity or a person's health is prohibited.

The state is responsible for the rehabilitation of convicts and facilitating for them a dignified life after their release

Article 38: Sanctity of correspondence
The private life of citizens is inviolable. Its secrecy is guaranteed. Postal correspondence, wires, electronic correspondence, telephone calls and other means of communication may not be confiscated.

They cannot be monitored except for a limited period of time and in situations that are set out by law, and based on a justified judicial warrant

Article 39: The inviolability of homes
Homes are inviolable. With the exception of cases of immediate danger and distress, they may not be entered, searched or monitored, except in cases defined by law, and by a justified judicial warrant which specifies the place, timing and purpose. Those in a home are alerted before the home is entered or searched

Article 40: Right to safety
All residents have a right to a safe life which is guaranteed by the state. The law protects the individual against criminal phenomena

Article 41: Inviolability of the human body
The human body is inviolable, and the trafficking of human organs prohibited. No person may be subjected to any medical or scientific experiment without free, documented consent, and in accordance with the established foundations of medical science, and in the manner organized by law

Article 42: Freedom of movement
Freedom of movement, residence and immigration is guaranteed.

No citizen may be deported from or prevented from returning to the country.

No citizen may be prevented from leaving the country, nor placed under house arrest, except by virtue of a justified judicial warrant, and for a limited period of time

Chapter 2: Civil and political rights

Article 43: Freedom of belief
The freedom of belief is inviolable.

The state guarantees the freedom to practice religious rites and to establish places of worship for the divine religions. This is as organized by law

Article 44: Blasphemy
Defaming all religious messengers and prophets is prohibited

Article 45: Freedom of thought and opinion
The freedom of thought and opinion is guaranteed.

Every individual has the right to express an opinion and to disseminate it verbally, in writing or illustration, or by any other means of publication and expression

Article 46: Freedom of creativity
Freedom of creativity in its various forms is the right of every citizen.

The state advances science, the arts and literature. The state sponsors creators and inventors, protects their creations and innovations, and works to apply them for the benefit of society.

The state takes the necessary measures to preserve the nation’s cultural heritage. The state works to promote cultural services

Article 47: Access to information
Access to information, data, statistics and documents, its disclosure and circulation, is a right guaranteed by the state to all citizens, on the condition that this does not violate the sanctity of private life or the rights of others, and that it does not conflict with national security.

The law organizes the rules for filing and archiving public documents, the means to access information, appeals against a refusal to disclose information, and the consequent accountability for refusing to disclose information

Article 48: Freedom of the press
The freedom of the press, printing, publication and mass media is guaranteed. The media is free and independent to serve society and to express various trends in public opinion, and contribute to shaping and directing public opinion in the context of the state and society’s main components, and in the context of the preservation of rights, freedoms and public duties, of the respect for the sanctity of the private lives of citizens and the requirements of national security. The closure, prohibition or confiscation of media outlets is prohibited except with a court order.

It is prohibited to monitor whatever media outlets publish. An exception is permitted in the case of limited censorship that may be imposed in times of war or public mobilization

Article 49: Freedom to own and establish newspapers
Freedom to publish and own newspapers of all kinds is guaranteed subject to notification for every natural or moral Egyptian person.

The law organizes the establishment of radio stations, television broadcasting and digital media

Article 50: Freedom of assembly
Citizens have the right to organize public meetings, processions and peaceful demonstrations. They must be unarmed and must provide notification as regulated by law.

The right to private assembly is guaranteed without the need to provide notification. Security personnel may not attend or intercept such private meetings

Article 51: Right to establish associations
Citizens have the right to establish associations and civil institutions, subject to notification. Such institutions operate freely, and have legal personality.

The authorities may not disband them or their administrative bodies without a court order, in the manner prescribed by law

Article 52: Right to form syndicates
The right to form syndicates, unions and cooperatives is guaranteed. They have legal personality, be formed on a democratic basis, operate freely, participate in the service of the community, and in raising the standard of efficiency among their members, and defending their rights.

Authorities may not disband them or their boards other than based on a court order

Article 53: Trade unions
The law organizes professional trade unions, their management on a democratic basis, determines its assets, and the manner in which its members are to be held accountable for their conduct, which should be in accordance with professional codes of ethics. One trade union is allowed per profession.

Authorities may not disband the boards of trade unions except with a court order, and may not place them under sequestration

Article 54: Right to address public authorities
Every individual has the right to address public authorities in writing and under his own signature.

Addressing public authorities should not be in the name of groups, with the exception of legal persons

Article 55: Citizen participation in public life
Citizen participation in public life is a national duty. Every citizen has the right to vote, run for elections, and express opinions in referendums. The law organizes the direct application of these rights.

The state is responsible for the inclusion of the name of every citizen who satisfies the conditions to vote in a voters’ registry and must do so automatically.

The state ensures the validity, impartiality and integrity of referendums and elections. Interference in any of the foregoing is a crime punishable by law

Article 56: Egyptians living abroad
The state safeguards the interests of Egyptians living abroad, protects them and protects their rights and freedoms, assists them perform their public duties toward the Egyptian state and society, and encourages their contribution to the development of the nation.

Their participation in elections and referendums is organized by law

Article 57: Asylum
The state grants asylum to foreigners who are deprived in their country of the public rights and freedoms that are guaranteed by this Constitution.

Extradition of political refugees is prohibited.

All of the foregoing is in accordance with what the law organizes

Chapter 3: Economic and social rights

Article 58: Right to Education
Every citizen has the right to high quality education. It is free throughout its stages in all government institutions and is obligatory in the primary stage. The state works to extend that obligation to other stages.

The state supports and encourages technical education, and oversees education in all its forms. The state allocates sufficient percentage from the national revenue to technical education.

All educational institutions, public and private, local and otherwise abide by the state’s educational plans and objectives, with a view to creating a link between education and the needs of society and production

Article 59: Freedom of scientific research
Freedom of scientific research is guaranteed. Universities, scientific and linguistic academies, and research centers are independent. The state provides them with a sufficient percentage of the national revenue

Article 60: The Arabic language and religious education
The Arabic language is a primary subject in all stages of education in all educational institutions.

Religious education and national history are core subjects of pre-university education in all its forms.

Universities are committed to the teaching of morals and ethics relating to various disciplines

Article 61: Eradication of illiteracy
The state develops a comprehensive plan to eradicate illiteracy in all age groups, for males and females. The state will implement this plan with society’s participation within 10 years from the date of the Constitution

Article 62: Healthcare
Healthcare is a right of every citizen. The state allocates a sufficient percentage of the national revenue to healthcare.

The state provides healthcare services and health insurance in accordance with just and high standards, to be free of charge for indigents.

All health facilities provide various forms of medical treatment to every citizen in cases of emergency or danger to the life of a person.

The state supervises all health facilities, inspect them for quality of services, and monitor all materials, products and means of health-related publicity. Legislation will be issued and measures will be passed to put such supervision into effect

Article 63: Environment
Each individual is entitled to live in a healthy and sound environment. The state commits to maintaining and protecting the environment from pollution, to make use of natural resources in way that does not damage the environment and safeguard the rights of future generations

Article 64: Right to work
Work is a right, duty and honor for every citizen, guaranteed by the state on the basis of the principles of equality, justice and equal opportunities.

There can be no forced labor except in accordance with law.

Public sector employees work in the service of the people. The state employs citizens on the basis of merit, without nepotism or mediation. Any violation of the foregoing is a crime punishable by law.

The state guarantees for every worker the right to fair pay, vacation, retirement and social security, healthcare, protection against occupational hazards, and the application of occupational safety conditions in the workplace, in accordance with the law.

Workers may not be dismissed except in those situations that are set out by law.

Striking peacefully is a right which is organized by law

Article 65: Martyrs
The state honors the martyrs of the 25 January Revolution as well as martyrs of war and of national duty, as well as the wounded. The state supports their families, as well as the injured and war veterans, the families of those disappeared during war, and similar cases. They, their children and their wives are prioritised in employment opportunities.

The foregoing is organized by law

Article 66: Social security
The state provides social security services.

All citizens have the right to social security if they are unable to support themselves and their families in case of incapacity, unemployment or old age, such that they are guaranteed a minimum standard of living

Article 67: Pensions for farmers and others
The state works to provide an adequate pension for small-scale farmers, agricultural workers, casual workers, and all who do not have access to the social insurance system.

This is organized by law

Article 68: Adequate housing, clean water and healthy food
Adequate housing, clean water and healthy food are guaranteed rights.

The state adopts a national housing plan, which is based on social justice, the promotion of independent initiatives and housing cooperatives, and the regulation of the use of national territory for the purposes of construction, in accordance with the public interest and with the rights of future generations

Article 69: Right to play sports
The right to play sports is a right that belongs to everyone.

The state and society strive to discover talented athletes and support them, and take the necessary measures to encourage exercise

Article 70: Rights of the child
Every child, from the moment of birth, has the right to a proper name, family care, basic nutrition, shelter, health services, and religious, emotional and cognitive development.

The state commits to caring and protecting the child in case he loses his family. The state also guarantees the rights of disabled children, and their rehabilitation and integration into society.

Child labor is prohibited before passing the age of compulsory education, in jobs that are not fit for a child’s age, or that prevent the child from continuing education.

A child may only be detained for a limited period, and he must be provided with legal assistance, and be detained in an appropriate location, in which children must be separated according to gender, age and type of crime, and be held away from places of adult detention

Article 71: Care for children and youth
The state guarantees care for children and youth; supports their spiritual, moral, cultural, educational, physical, psychological, social and economic development. The state enables them to engage in active political participation

Article 72: People with disabilities
The state commits to providing people with disabilities with health, educational, economic and social care, and provides them with employment opportunities, raises social awareness on their situation, and adapts public facilities to suit their needs

Article 73: Oppression, exploitation and sex trafficking
All forms of oppression, exploitation and sex trafficking are prohibited and criminalized by law

Chapter 4: Guarantees for the protection of rights and freedoms

Article 74: The rule of law
The rule of law is the basis for governance in the state.

The independence of the judiciary and the immunity of judges are two basic guarantees to safeguard rights and freedoms

Article 75: Right to litigate
The right to litigation is inalienable and guaranteed for all.

The state commits to making judicial institutions accessible and to encouraging a rapid decision making process.

It is prohibited to isolate any act or administrative decision from judicial oversight.

No person can be tried except before his natural judge. Exceptional courts are prohibited

Article 76: Punishment
Penalty is personalized. There can be no crime or penalty except by virtue of the Constitution or the law. No penalty can be inflicted except by virtue of a court decision. Penalties are inflicted only for acts committed after the promulgation of the relevant law

Article 77: Due process
Except for situations set out by law, criminal prosecutions must be based on an order from the relevant judicial body.

A defendant is innocent until proven guilty in a legal and fair trial, and in which he is granted the right of defense. Every person accused of a felony must have a lawyer to defend him. The law determines the minor offenses for which a defense lawyer is also required.

The law organizes the process of appealing decisions relating to felonies and offenses.

The state provides protection for victims of crime, witnesses, defendants and informants where necessary

Article 78: Right to defense
The right of defense in person or by proxy is guaranteed.

The law guarantees for indigents the means to resort to the courts and to defend their rights before the courts

Article 79: Preventing or delaying the implementation of court decisions
Court decisions are issued and enforced in the name of the people. It is a crime punishable by law for the relevant civil servant to prevent or delay the implementation of a court decision. In such a situation, a person who has a sentence issued in his favor has the right to lodge a direct criminal action before the relevant court

Article 80: The absence of state of limitations
Any violation of any of the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution is a crime for which there is no statute of limitation. The state guarantees fair compensation to the victim of such encroachment.

The injured party has the right to lodge a direct criminal action.

The National Council for Human Rights informs the Public Prosecution of any violation of these rights, may join the injured party in a civil action, and may appeal on his behalf

Article 81: Limitations clause
The rights and freedoms inherent in the citizen’s person cannot be suspended or detracted from.

No law may regulate the exercise of these rights or freedoms in a way that constrains their origin and essence.

Rights and freedoms are to be exercised in a way that is consistent with the components that are set out in the Chapter on the state and Society in this Constitution

Part III: Public Authorities

Chapter 1: Legislative authority

Section 1: Common provisions

Article 82: Legislative power
Legislative power belongs to the Council of Representatives and to the Shura Council.

Each exercises its respective authorities as set out in the Constitution

Article 83: Prohibition on double membership
It is prohibited to be a member of both the Council of Representatives and the Shura Council. The law specifies other cases of incompatibility

Article 84: Incompatibility with other work
Save in exceptional situation set out by law, members of either the Council of Representatives or the Shura Council are to be fully devoted to their offices. A member’s position or work will be kept open until his return, in accordance with the provisions of the law

Article 85: Representative of the entire population
A member is the representative of the population as a whole, without restriction or limitation

Article 86: Oath
Prior to the start of his tenure, a member takes the following oath before the chamber to which he belongs: “I swear by Almighty God to loyally uphold the republican system, to respect the Constitution and the law, to fully look after the interests of the people, and to safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of the motherland.”

Article 87: Challenges to the validity of membership
The Court of Cassation has final jurisdiction over the validity of membership in both chambers. Challenges are submitted to the Court within a period not exceeding 30 days from date on which the final election results are announced. A verdict must be passed within 60 days from the date on which the challenge is filed.

Where a membership is deemed invalid, it becomes void from the date on which the verdict is reported to the chamber

Article 88: Property and financial regulation
It is prohibited for any member of either chamber, throughout his tenure, whether in person or through an intermediary, to purchase or rent any piece of state property. It is also prohibited to lease or sell or barter with the state any part of their own property, or conclude a contract with the state as vendor, supplier or contractor.

Members provide financial disclosures and present them to their chamber at the start and at the end of their tenure as well as at the end of each year.

If a member receives cash or in-kind gifts by virtue of his membership in a chamber, ownership of such gifts is transferred to the Public Treasury.

All the foregoing is organized by law

Article 89: Member opinions
A member cannot be held accountable for any opinions relating to his work in the chamber of which he is a member

Article 90: Member immunity
It is prohibited, except in cases of flagrante delicto, to take criminal action against a member without prior permission from their chamber. If not in session, permission must be granted by the chamber’s secretariat, and the chamber must be notified of the decision as soon as the chamber is in session.

In all cases, if a request for permission to take legal action against a member does not receive a response within 30 days, the permission is to be considered granted

Article 91: Remuneration
Members are remunerated in accordance with the law

Article 92: Seat of parliament
The seats of both the Council of Representatives and the Shura Council are in Cairo.

However, in exceptional circumstances, any of the two chambers may hold meetings elsewhere, at the request of the President of the Republic or one-third of the chamber’s members.

Any meetings of the chamber that do not conform with the foregoing are invalid, including any decisions that may have been passed

Article 93: Public and in camera sessions
The sessions of the Council of Representatives and the Shura Council are held in public.

Either chamber may hold a closed session based on a request by the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister, or at least 20 of its members. The chamber will decide whether the debate on the question takes place in a public or closed session

Article 94: Inauguration and adjournment of sessions
The President of the Republic convokes the Council of Representatives and the Shura Council for their ordinary annual sessions before the first Thursday of October. If such convocation is not made, the chambers are required by the Constitution to meet on said day.

The ordinary session continues for at least eight months. The President of the Republic brings each session to a close with each chamber’s approval, and in the case of the Council of Representatives, only after the state’s general budget has been adopted

Article 95: Extraordinary sessions
It is possible for either chamber to be called to an extraordinary meeting based on a request by the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister, or upon a request signed by at least one tenth of the relevant chamber

Article 96: Quorum and required majority
The meetings of the Council of Representatives or Shura Council, and the resolutions they pass, are not considered valid unless attended by the majority of their members.

In cases other than those requiring a special majority, resolutions are adopted based on an absolute majority of the members present. In case of a tie vote, the matter in deliberation is considered rejected

Article 97: Selection of speakers and deputy speakers
Each chamber elects, in the first meeting of its regular annual session, a speaker and two deputy speakers for the full legislative term in the case of the Council of Representatives, and for half of the legislative term in the case of the Shura Council. If either seat becomes vacant, the Shura Council or Council of Representatives elects a replacement, whose term will last until the end of his predecessor’s.

In all cases, one-third of the members of either chamber can request a new election of the Speaker or Deputy Speakers in the first meeting of the regular annual session

Article 98: Replacement for the speaker
Where the speaker of the Council of Representatives or the speaker of the Shura Council temporarily occupy the position of president of the republic, the relevant chamber will be chaired by the older of the two deputy speakers

Article 99: Rules of Procedure
Each chamber establishes its own rules of procedure regulating its work and the manner of practicing its functions. The rules of procedure are to be published in the Official Gazette

Article 100: Internal order
Each chamber maintains its internal order, a responsibility assumed by each chamber’s speaker.

No armed forces may be present within or in vicinity of either chamber except at the request of the chamber’s speaker

Article 101: Legislative initiative
The President of the Republic, the government, and every member of the Council of Representatives has the right to propose laws.

Every bill is referred to a specialized committee of the Council of Representatives, which studies it and submits a report to the Council.

Bills presented by members of the Council of Representatives cannot be referred to that committee before being first endorsed by the Proposals Committee and approved for consideration by the Council of Representatives. The reasons for which the bill is rejected must be presented if the Proposals Committee does not endorse a proposal for consideration.

A draft law proposed by a member but rejected by the Council of Representatives may not be presented again during the same legislative term

Article 102: Consideration of draft laws
Neither chamber may pass a bill without seeking consultation in relation to the bill.

Each chamber has the right to amend and break down existing clauses or suggest amendments.

Each bill passed by either of the chambers will be studied by the other, which in turn cannot delay it for more than 60 days, excluding the legislative recess. It cannot be considered a law unless passed by both chambers

Article 103: Legislative dispute between two chambers
In case of a legislative dispute between the two chambers, a joint committee of 20 members is formed, 10 selected by each chamber from among its members and based on the nominations of its General Committee. The joint committee then proposes the wording of the disputed clauses.

The proposals are then presented to each chamber; if an agreement is not reached, the case is taken to the Council of Representatives to reach a decision based on a two-thirds majority vote

Article 104: Approval of legislation
The Council of Representatives notifies the President of the Republic of any law passed for the President to issue the new law within 15 days from the date of receiving it. In case the President objects to the draft law, it must be referred back to the Council of Representatives within 30 days.

If the draft law is not referred back within this period, or if it is approved again by a majority of two- thirds of the members, it is considered a law and is issued.

If it is not approved by the Council of Representatives, it may not be presented in the same session before four months have passed from the date of the decision

Article 105: Discussion of a public issue
Any member of either chamber may propose to the Prime Minister, one of his deputies or a minister the discussion of a public issue

Article 106: Clarification of the government’s policy
Any 20 members of the Council of Representatives, or 10 of the Shura Council, at least, may request the discussion of a public issue to obtain clarification on the government’s policy in its regard

Article 107: Right to obtain data or information
Any member of the Council of Representatives or the Shura Council has the right to obtain data or information pertaining to their own performance at the relevant chamber, taking into account the provisions of Article 47 of the Constitution

Article 108: Submission of written proposals and complaints by citizens
Citizens may submit written proposals to either chamber regarding public issues.

Citizens may also submit complaints to either chamber to be referred to the relevant ministers. Based on the chamber’s request, the minister may provide a clarification, and the citizen who issued the complaint is kept informed

Article 109: Government attendance of sessions
The Prime Minister, his deputies, ministers and their deputies may attend the sessions of either chamber or of any of their committees. Their attendance is obligatory if requested by either chamber. They may be assisted by high-ranking officials of their choice.

They are to be heard whenever they request to speak. They answer questions pertaining to issues that are in discussion, but cannot vote when votes are taken

Article 110: Resignation of members
Each chamber accepts the resignation of its members, which must be submitted in writing, and to be accepted must not be submitted after a chamber has started measure of revoking membership against the resigning member

Article 111: Revocation of membership
Membership of either chamber may only be revoked if a member has lost trust, status or any of the conditions for membership on the basis of which he was elected, or if the duties of membership have been violated.

Decision on revoking membership is issued by a majority of two-thirds of the chamber in question

Article 112: Vacancy
If a member’s seat becomes vacant at least six months before the end of his term, the vacant position must be filled in accordance with the law within 60 days from the date on which the vacancy is first reported.

The new member’s term is complementary to that of his predecessor

Section 2: Council of Representatives

Article 113: Composition
The Council of Representatives has at least 350 members, elected by direct, secret public balloting.

A candidate for parliamentary elections must be an Egyptian citizen, enjoying civil and political rights, holder of a certificate of basic education, and 25 years old or older at the time of candidacy.

Other requirements of candidacy, the provisions for election, the fairly representative division of constituencies, are defined by law

Article 114: Term
The term of membership is five calendar years, commencing from the date of its first session.

Elections for a new Council of Representatives are held during the 60 days preceding the end of term for the previous Council of Representatives

Article 115: Mandate
The Council of Representatives holds legislative power, and is responsible for approving the state’s general policy, the public plan for economic and social development and the annual state budget law. It exercises control over the executive branch’s work, in the manner prescribed by the Constitution.

The procedures for drafting the public plan for economic and social development, and presenting it to the Council of Representatives, are determined by law

Article 116: Annual state budget law
The annual state budget includes all revenue and expenditure without exception. The draft annual state is submitted to the Council of Representatives at least 90 days before the beginning of the fiscal year. It is not considered in effect unless approved thereby, and it is put to vote on a chapter-by-chapter basis.

The Council of Representatives may modify the expenditures in the draft budget law, except those proposed to honor a specific liability. Should the modification result in an increase in total expenditure, the Council of Representatives agrees with the government on means to secure revenue resources to achieve a balance between revenues and expenditures. The budget is issued in a law, which may include modification in any existing law to the extent necessary to realize such balance.

If the new budget is not approved before the beginning of the new fiscal year, the earlier budget remains in effect until the new budget is approved.

The specifics of the fiscal year, the method of budget preparation, the provisions of the budgets of institutions, public bodies, and their accounts, are defined by law

Article 117: Transfer of funds in the budget law
The Council of Representatives’ approval is necessary for the transfer of any funds from one chapter of the budget to another, as well as for any expenditure not included therein or in excess of its estimates. The approval is issued in a law

Article 118: Collection and disbursement of public funds
The basic rules for collection of public funds and the procedure for their disbursement is regulated by law

Article 119: Salaries, pensions, indemnities, subsides and bonuses
The rules governing salaries, pensions, indemnities, subsides and bonuses taken from the state treasury are regulated by law; so are the cases for exception from such rules, and the authorities in charge of their application

Article 120: Council of Representatives’ approval for contracting loans
The executive branch of government cannot contract a loan, obtain a fund, or commit itself to a project entailing expenditure from the state treasury for a subsequent period, except with the Council of Representatives' approval

Article 121: Final account
The final account of the annual state budget is submitted to the Council of Representatives within a period not exceeding 6 months from the end of the fiscal year. The annual report of the Central Auditing Organization and the latter’s observations on the final account must be attached.

The final account of the annual state budget is put to vote on a chapter-by-chapter basis and is issued by law.

The Council of Representatives has the right to request from the Central Auditing Organization any additional data or pertinent reports

Article 122: Special investigative committees
The Council of Representatives may form a special committee or entrust one of its existing committees to examine the activities of any administrative department or institution or public enterprise, for the purpose of fact-finding regarding a specific issue and informing the Council of Representatives of the actual financial, administrative or economic status, or for conducting investigations into a past activity; the Council of Representatives decides on the appropriate course of action.

In order to carry out its mission, such a committee would be entitled to collect the evidence it deems necessary and to summon individuals for interviews. All executive and administrative bodies respond to demands by the committee and put under its disposal all the documents and evidence required

Article 123: Request for information
Every member of the Council of Representatives may submit questions to the Prime Minister, to one of his deputies, or to a minister in relation to any matter that falls under their mandate. It is obligatory to respond.

The member may withdraw his question at any time. A question cannot become an interrogation in the same session

Article 124: Briefings and statements
Every member of the Council of Representatives may request an urgent briefing or a statement from the Prime Minister, the Prime Minister’s deputies, or to ministers in relation to urgent matters of public importance.

The government is obliged to respond

Article 125: Interrogation
Every member of the Council of Representatives may address interrogations to the Prime Minister, to the Prime Minister’s deputies, or to ministers in relation to urgent matters of public importance.

Debate on an interrogation takes place at least seven days after its submission, except in cases of urgency as decided by the Council of Representatives and with the government’s consent

Article 126: Withdrawal of confidence
The Council of Representatives may decide to withdraw its confidence from the Prime Minister, a deputy of the Prime Minister, or any one of the ministers.

A motion of no confidence may be submitted only after an interrogation, upon proposal by one-tenth of the Council of Representatives’ members. The Council of Representatives should reach a decision within seven days from the date of debating the motion. A withdrawal of confidence requires a majority of the Council of Representatives’ members to be successful.

In all cases, a no confidence motion may not be passed in connection with an issue that had already been decided upon in the same juridical term.

If the Council of Representatives decides to withdraw confidence from the Prime Minister or a minister, and the government announced its solidarity with him before the vote, then that government is obliged to offer its resignation. If the no confidence resolution concerns a certain member of the government, that member is obliged to resign their office

Article 127: Dissolution of the Council of Representatives
The President of the Republic may not dissolve the Council of Representatives except by a causative decision and following a public referendum.

A Council of Representatives may not be dissolved during its first annual session, nor for the same cause for which the immediately previous Council of Representatives was dissolved.

To dissolve the Council of Representatives, the President must issue a decision to suspend parliamentary sessions and hold a referendum within 20 days. If voters agree by a valid majority on the dissolution, it is to be carried out. The President calls for early parliamentary elections to take place within 30 days from the date of the dissolution. The new Council of Representatives convenes within the 10 days following the completion of elections.

If no such majority agrees to the dissolution, the President of the Republic resigns.

If, however, the referendum or elections do not take place within the specified time limit, the existing Parliament reconvenes of its own accord on the day following the expiry of the time limit

Section 3: Shura Council

Article 128: Composition
The Shura Council has at least 150 members, elected by direct secret ballot. The President of the Republic may appoint a number of members not exceeding one-tenth of the number of elected members

Article 129: Conditions for candidacy
A candidate for the Shura Council must be an Egyptian citizen enjoying civil and political rights, a holder of a certificate of higher education, and, at the time of candidacy, at least 35 years old.

Other requirements of candidacy, the provisions for election, the division of constituencies, are defined by law

Article 130: Term
The term of membership of the Shura Council is six years, whereas renewed election and appointment of 50 percent of the total number of members, whether elected or appointed, is every three years, as defined by law

Article 131: Effect of dissolution of Council of Representatives
In the case of the dissolution of Council of Representatives, the Shura Council carries out its joint legislative responsibilities. Any bills passed by the Shura Council during the period of Council of Representatives' dissolution are presented to the new Council of Representatives for consideration as soon as it is convened.

In the absence of both chambers, and where there is a requirement for urgent measures that cannot be delayed, the President of the Republic may issue decrees that have the force of law, which are then presented to the Council of Representatives and the Shura Council, as the case may be, within 15 days from the start of their sessions.

If such decrees are not presented to the chambers, or if they are presented but not approved, their legality is revoked retroactively, unless the Council affirms their validity for the previous period, or chooses to settle the consequent effects in some other manner

Chapter 2: Executive Authority

Section 1: The President

Article 132: Mandate
The President is the head of state and chief of the executive branch of government. He defends the interests of the people, safeguards the independence and territorial integrity of the motherland, and protects the separation of powers.

He carries out his responsibilities in the manner prescribed in the Constitution

Article 133: Term
The President of the Republic is elected for a period of four calendar years, commencing on the day the term of his predecessor ends. The President may only be re-elected once.

The process of the presidential election begins at least 90 days before the end of the presidential term. The result is to be announced at least 10 days before the end of term.

The President of the Republic may not hold any partisan position for the duration of the presidency

Article 134: Eligibility
A presidential candidate must be Egyptian born to Egyptian parents, must have carried no other citizenship, must have civil and political rights, cannot be married to a non-Egyptian, and at the time of nomination cannot be younger than 40 Gregorian years

Article 135: Conditions for nomination
A prerequisite for nomination to the presidency is a recommendation by at least 20 elected members of the Council of Representatives and of the Shura Council, or endorsements from at least 20,000 citizens who have the right to vote, in at least 10 governorates, with a minimum of 1,000 endorsements from each governorate.

No one can endorse more than one candidate. This is organised by law

Article 136: Method of election
The President of the Republic is elected by direct secret ballot, with an absolute majority of valid votes. The procedures for electing the President of the Republic are regulated by law

Article 137: Oath
Before assuming the presidential position, the President of the Republic takes the following oath before the Council of Representatives and the Shura Council: “I swear by Almighty God to loyally uphold the republican system, to respect the Constitution and the law, to fully look after the interests of the people and to safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of the motherland.”

In case the Council of Representatives is dissolved, the oath is to be taken before the Shura Council

Article 138: Finances
The finances of the President of the Republic are stipulated by law. The President cannot receive any other salary or remuneration, nor engage throughout the presidential term, whether in person or through an intermediary, in an independent profession or business, nor is the President allowed to buy or rent state property, nor lease or sell to or barter with the state any part of their own property, nor conclude a contract with the state as vendor, supplier or contractor.

The President must submit to the Council of Representatives a financial disclosure upon taking office, upon leaving it, and at the end of each year.

If, in relation to the presidential post, the President receives, in person or through an intermediary, cash or in-kind gifts, such gifts are transferred to the state treasury.

The foregoing is organised by law

Article 139: Government formation
The President of the Republic nominates the Prime Minister, who is assigned by the President the task of forming a government and presenting its programme to the Council of Representatives within 30 days. If the government is not granted confidence, the President appoints another prime minister from the party that holds a plurality seats in the Council of Representatives. If the second nominee does not obtain confidence within a similar period, the Council of Representatives appoints a Prime Minister who is assigned by the President the task of forming a government, provided said government obtains parliamentary confidence within a similar period. Otherwise, the President of the Republic dissolves the Council of Representatives and call the elections of a new Council of Representatives within 60 days from the date the dissolution is announced.

In all cases, the sum of the periods set forth in this Article should not exceed 90 days.

In the case the Council of Representatives is dissolved, the Prime Minister presents the government and its programme to the new Council of Representatives at its first session

Article 140: Establishing the state’s public policy
The President of the Republic, in cooperation with the government, lays out the state’s public policy and oversees its implementation, in the manner prescribed in the Constitution

Article 141: Agency through the government
The President of the Republic exercises presidential authority via the Prime Minister, his deputies and ministers, except those authorities related to defense, national security and foreign policy, and the authorities set out in Articles 139, 145, 146, 147, 148 and 149 of the Constitution

Article 142: Delegation of authority
The President of the Republic may delegate part of his mandate to the Prime Minister, to his deputies, to ministers or governors. This will be organised by law

Article 143: Power to call government meetings
The President of the Republic may call for government meetings to discuss important matters, presides over such meetings, and requests reports about public affairs from the Prime Minister

Article 144: Statement on the state’s general policy
The President of the Republic delivers a statement on the state’s general policy in a joint session of the Council of Representatives and the Shura Council at the opening of their regular annual sessions.

The President may, when appropriate, make other statements or convey specific messages to either Council

Article 145: Foreign relations
The President of the Republic represents the state in foreign relations and concludes treaties and ratifies them after the approval of the Council of Representatives and the Shura Council. Such treaties have the force of law after ratification and publication, according to established procedures.

Approval must be acquired from both chambers with a two-thirds majority of their members for any treaty of peace, alliance, trade and navigation, and all treaties related to the rights of sovereignty or that make the state treasury liable for any expenditures not included in its annual state budget.

No treaty contrary to the provisions of the Constitution can be approved

Article 146: Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces
The President of the Republic is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. The President cannot declare war, or send the armed forces outside state territory, except after consultation with the National Defense Council and the approval of the Council of Representatives with a majority of its members

Article 147: Appointment of civil and military personnel
The President of the Republic appoints civil and military personnel and dismisses them, appoints diplomatic representatives and removes them, and confirms political representatives of foreign countries and organizations. This is organised by law

Article 148: State of emergency
The President of the Republic declares, after consultation with the government, a state of emergency in the manner regulated by law. Such proclamation must be submitted to Council of Representatives within the following seven days.

If the declaration takes place when the Council of Representatives is not in session, a session is called immediately in order to consider the declaration. In case the Council of Representatives is dissolved, the matter is submitted to the Shura Council, all within the period specified in the preceding paragraph. The declaration of a state of emergency must be approved by a majority of members of each chamber. The declaration is for a specified period not exceeding six months, which can only be extended by another similar period upon the people’s approval in a public referendum.

The Council of Representatives cannot be dissolved while a state of emergency is in place

Article 149: Pardon and amnesty
The President of the Republic may issue a pardon or mitigate a sentence.

General amnesty may only be granted in a law

Article 150: Referenda
The President of the Republic may call for a referendum on important issues relating to the supreme interests of the state.

If the call for a referendum relates to more than one issue, the people must vote on each individual issue.

The results of a referendum are binding to all state authorities and the general public in all cases

Article 151: Resignation
For the President of the Republic to resign, a letter of resignation must be presented to the Council of Representatives

Article 152: Treason
A charge of felony or treason against the President of the Republic is to be based on a motion signed by at least one-third of the members of the Council of Representatives. An impeachment is to be issued only by a two-thirds majority of the members of the Council of Representatives.

As soon as an impeachment decision has been issued, the President of the Republic ceases all work; this is treated as a temporary obstacle preventing the President from carrying out presidential duties until a verdict is reached.

The President of the Republic is tried before a special court headed by the president of the Supreme Judicial Council, the longest-serving deputies of the president of the Supreme Constitutional Court and of the State Council, and the two longest-serving presidents of the Court of Appeals; the prosecution to be carried out before such court by the Prosecutor General. If any of the foregoing individuals are prevented from leaving their positions, they are replaced by order of seniority.

The law organizes the investigation and the trial procedures. In the case of conviction, the President of the Republic is relieved of his post, without prejudice to other penalties

Article 153: Incapacity
If on account of a temporary obstacle, the President of the Republic is rendered unable to carry out the presidential functions, the Prime Minister acts in his place.

If the Presidential office becomes vacant, due to resignation, death, permanent inability to work or any other reason, the Council of Representatives announces the vacancy and notifies the Presidential Elections Commission. The Speaker of the Council of Representatives temporarily assumes the presidential authorities.

In the event the foregoing takes place, the Shura Council and its Speaker replaces the Council of Representatives and its Speaker in cases the Council of Representatives is dissolved.

In all cases, a new president must be elected during a period not exceeding 90 days from the date the office became vacant.

The person acting in place of the President is not allowed to run for office, request any amendment to the Constitution, dissolve the Parliament or dismiss the government

Article 154: Vacancy
If the vacancy of the presidential office occurs at the same time that a referendum or the election of either the Council of Representatives or the Shura Council is being held, the presidential elections are given priority. The existing parliament continues in place until the completion of the presidential elections

Section 2: The Government

Article 155: Composition
The government consists of the Prime Minister, the Prime Minister’s deputies and the ministers.

The Prime Minister heads the government, oversees its work, and directs it in the performance of its functions

Article 156: Conditions of membership
A person appointed to the position of Prime Minister or any other position in the government must be an Egyptian citizen, enjoying civil and political rights, over the age of 30, and not having carried the citizenship of any other country unless renounced within a year of reaching the age of eighteen.

It is prohibited to hold a position in the government in addition to membership in either the Council of Representatives or the Shura Council. If a member of either chamber is appointed to the government, his place in parliament is vacated and the provisions of Article 112 of the Constitution are applied

Article 157: Oath
Before assuming their duties, the Prime Minister and members of government take the following oath before the President of the Republic: “I swear by Almighty God to loyally uphold the republican system, to respect the Constitution and the law, to fully look after the interests of the people and to safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of the motherland.”

Article 158: Finances
The finances of the Prime Minister and members of government are stipulated by law. They cannot receive any other salary or remuneration, nor engage throughout the term of their posts, whether in person or through an intermediary, in independent professions or business. Nor are they allowed to buy or rent state property, nor lease or sell to or barter with the state any part of their own property, nor conclude a contract with the state as vendors, suppliers or contractors.

A member of government must submit a financial disclosure to the Council of Representatives upon taking office, upon leaving it and at the end of each year.

If, in relation to their posts, they should receive cash or in-kind gifts, such gifts are transferred to the state treasury. The foregoing is organised by law

Article 159: Mandate
The government exercises the following functions in particular:

1. Collaborate with the President of the Republic in laying down the public policy of the state and overseeing its implementation.

2. Direct, coordinate and follow up on the work of the ministries and their affiliated public bodies and organizations.

3. Prepare draft laws and decrees.

4. Issue administrative decisions in accordance with the law, and monitor their implementation.

5. Prepare the draft annual state budget law.

6. Prepare the draft development plan of the state.

7. Contract and grant loans in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

8. Supervise the implementation of laws, maintain state security and protect the rights of the citizens and the interests of the state

Article 160: General policy of individual ministries
The Minister draws up his ministry’s general policy, supervises its implementation and offers guidance and control, in the framework of the state’s public policy

Article 161: Statements before the Council of Representatives and the Shura Council
A government member may make a statement before the Council of Representatives, the Shura Council, or one of their committees, concerning any matters within their mandate.

The chamber or the committee may discuss such a statement and convey its position regarding it

Article 162: Issuance of regulations
The Prime Minister issues necessary regulations for the enforcement of laws, in such a manner that does not involve any disruption, modification, or exemption from their enforcement, and has the right to vest others with the authority to issue them, unless the law designates who should issue the necessary regulations for its own implementation

Article 163: Issuance of regulations on public services
The Prime Minister issues the regulations necessary for the creation and organization of public services and facilities upon the government’s approval. The Council of Representatives' approval is required, if such regulations result in new expenditures in the annual state budget

Article 164: Disciplinary regulations
The Prime Minister issues disciplinary regulations upon the government’s approval

Article 165: Appointment and dismissal of civil servants
The authority in charge of the appointment and dismissal of civil servants, the functions of the main positions, and the responsibilities, rights and securities of employees, is regulated by law

Article 166: Accusations against the government
The President of the Republic, the Prosecutor General, and the Council of Representatives, with a motion signed by one-third of its members, have the right to accuse the Prime Minister or any of the members of the government concerning crimes committed during their term of office or in relation to their work.

In all cases, charges can only be brought with the approval of two-thirds of the members of the Council of Representatives. An accused member of government is relieved of their post until a verdict is reached. The end of their term of service does not preclude the start or resumption of prosecution

Article 167: Resignation
If the government or one of its members offers its resignation, the letter of resignation must be presented to the President of the Republic

Chapter 3: The Judiciary

Section 1: General Provisions

Article 168: Judicial independence
The judiciary is independent. It is vested in the courts of justice, which issue their judgments in accordance with the law. Its powers are defined by law. Interference in judicial affairs or in proceedings is a crime to which not statute of limitations may be applied

Article 169: Independence in the administration of judicial affairs
All judicial bodies administer their own affairs. Each has an independent budget and is consulted on the draft laws governing its affairs. This is organised by law

Article 170: The independence of judges
Judges are independent, cannot be dismissed, are subject to no other authority but the law, and are equal in rights and duties.

The conditions and procedures for their appointment and disciplinary actions against them are defined and regulated by the law. When delegated, their delegation is absolute, to the destinations and in the positions defined by the law, all in a manner that preserves the independence of the judiciary and the accomplishment of its duties

Article 171: Public sessions
Court sessions are public, unless, for reasons of public order or morals, the court deems them confidential. In all cases, the verdict is given in an open session

Section 2: The courts and public prosecution

Article 172: Mandate of the courts
Courts adjudicate all disputes and crimes except for matters that are to be decided by another judicial body. The judiciary settles any disputes relating to the affairs of its members

Article 173: Public prosecution
The public prosecution is an integral part of the judiciary. It is responsible for investigating, pressing charges and following up in all criminal cases except what is exempted by law. The law establishes the public prosecution’s other competencies.

Public prosecution is carried out by a Prosecutor General who is appointed by the President of the Republic, based on the selection of the Supreme Judicial Council from among the Deputies to the President of the Court of Cassation, the Presidents of the Court of Appeals and Assistant Prosecutor Generals, for a period of four years, or for the period remaining until retirement age, whichever comes first, and only once during a judge’s career

Section 3: The State Council

Article 174: Mandate
The State Council is an independent judicial body that exclusively undertakes adjudicating in administrative disputes and disputes pertaining to the implementation of its decisions. It also undertakes disciplinary proceedings and appeals, adjudicates in legal issues to be determined by law, reviews and drafts bills and resolutions of legislative character referred to it, and reviews contracts to which the state is a party.

Other competencies to be determined by law

Section 4: The Supreme Constitutional Court

Article 175: Mandate and procedures
The Supreme Constitutional Court is an independent judicial body. It is based in Cairo. It is exclusively competent to decide on the constitutionality of laws and regulations.

The law defines the Court’s other competencies and regulates the procedures that are to be followed before the Court

Article 176: Composition
The Supreme Constitutional Court is made up of a president and ten members. The law determines the judicial or other bodies and associations that nominate them, the manner in which they are to be appointed, and the requirements to be satisfied by them. Appointments take place by a decree from the President of the Republic

Article 177: Constitutionality of electoral laws
The President of the Republic or the Speaker of the Council of Representatives present draft laws governing presidential, legislative or local elections before the Supreme Constitutional Court, to determine their compliance with the Constitution prior to dissemination. The Court reaches a decision in this regard within 45 days from the date the matter is presented before it; otherwise, the proposed law is considered approved.

If the Court deems one or more parts of the text non-compliant with the provisions of the Constitution, its decision is implemented.

The laws referred to in the first paragraph are not subject to the subsequent control stipulated in Article 175 of the Constitution

Article 178: Publication of decisions in the Official Gazette
The Official Gazette publishes verdicts issued by the Supreme Constitutional Court and decisions pertaining to pre-emptive control of draft laws governing presidential, legislative or local elections.

The effects of a decision on the unconstitutionality of a legislative text are organised by law

Section 5: Judicial Bodies

Article 179: The Association of State Affairs
The Association of State Affairs is an independent judicial body. It undertakes the legal representation of the state in disputes, and technical supervision of legal affairs departments within State Administration.

It is responsible for the drafting of contracts and the settling of disputes to which the state is a party, in the manner regulated by law.

Its other competencies are defined by law.

Its members share immunities, securities, rights and duties assigned to other members of the judiciary

Article 180: Administrative Prosecutor
The Administrative Prosecutor is an independent judicial body. It investigates financial and administrative irregularities, raises disciplinary proceedings before the courts of the State Council and follows up on them, and takes legal action to address deficiencies in public facilities. Other competencies are defined by law.

Its members share immunities, securities, rights and duties assigned to other members of the judiciary

Section 6: The legal profession

Article 181: Independence
The legal profession is a liberal profession and a cornerstone of justice. It is practiced by lawyers independently and is safeguarded by guarantees that protect them and enable them to carry out their work, in the manner regulated by law

Section 7: The experts

Article 182: Autonomy
Officers at the Real Estate Publicity Department, forensic experts and judicial experts enjoy technical autonomy in their work. The law safeguards the necessary guarantees and protection for them to carry out their work

Chapter 4: The system for local administration

Section 1: Local and administrative division of the state

Article 183: Local administrative units
The state is divided into local administrative units that have legal personality. They incorporate governorates, provinces, cities, districts and villages. One administrative unit may comprise more than one village or district. Other administrative units that have legal personality may be established. The foregoing will be organised by law in a way that supports decentralisation, that empowers administrative units in providing local services and facilities, that reinvigorates them and improves their administration

Article 184: Technical, administrative and financial assistance from the state
The state guarantees that it will satisfy the local unit’s needs in terms of technical, administrative and financial assistance, and ensures the equitable distribution of facilities, services and resources, and works to bring development levels and living standards in these units to a common standard. This will be organised by law

Article 185: Local taxes and fees
Local units’ income includes additional taxes and fees of a local nature. The unit follows the same rules and procedures in the collection of public funds as followed by the state. The foregoing is regulated by law

Article 186: Cooperation between local units
The law regulates cooperation between local units in matters of mutual benefit and means of cooperation between local units and the state apparatus

Article 187: Selection of governors
The law regulates the manner in which governors and heads of other local administrative units are selected, and defines their mandate

Section 2: Local Councils

Article 188: Election of local councils
Every local unit elects a local council by direct, secret ballot for a term of four years.

Representatives from the executive apparatus of the local unit forms part of the council but have no counted vote.

Every council elects its president and deputy from among its elected members.

Conditions and procedures for nomination and election are regulated by law

Article 189: Mandate
The local council is concerned with issues of concern in the unit it represents. It creates and manages local facilities, economic, social and health-related activities, as well as other activities. The foregoing is organised by law

Article 190: Local council decisions
Local council decisions that are issued within the council’s mandate are final. they are not subject to interference from the executive branch of government, except to prevent the council from overstepping limits, or causing damage to public interest or the interests of other local councils.

Any dispute over the jurisdiction of a local council is dealt with as a matter of urgency by the Legislation Department of the State Council. The foregoing is organised by law

Article 191: Budget and final accounts
Every local council is in charge of its own budget and final accounts, in the manner organised by law

Article 192: Dissolution of local councils
It is prohibited to dissolve local councils as part of a comprehensive administrative procedure. The manner to dissolve and re-elect any one of them is organised by law

Chapter 5: National Security and Defense

Section 1: The National Security Council

Article 193: Composition and mandate
The National Security Council is established. It is presided over by the President of the Republic and includes in its membership the Prime Minister, the Speakers of the Council of Representatives and the Shura Council, the Minister of Defense, the Minister of Interior, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of Finance, the Minister of Justice, the Minister of Health, the Chief of the General Intelligence Services, and the Heads of the Committees of Defense and National Security in the Council of Representatives and the Shura Council.

The Council adopts strategies for establishing security in the country; faces disasters and crises of all kinds and takes necessary measures to contain them; and identifies sources of threat to Egyptian national security, whether at home or abroad, and undertakes necessary actions to address them on the official and popular levels.

The Council invites whoever is seen as being of relevant expertise to attend its meetings without having their votes counted.

Other competencies and regulations are defined by law

Section 2: The Armed Forces

Article 194: Duty of the armed forces
The armed forces belong to the people. Their duty is to protect the country, and preserve its security and territories. The state is exclusively mandated to establish armed forces. No individual, entity, organization or group is allowed to create military or para-military structures, groups or organizations.

The armed forces have a Supreme Council as regulated by law

Article 195: Commander in Chief
The Minister of Defense is the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces, appointed from among its officers

Article 196: Public mobilization
The law regulates public mobilization and defines the conditions of service, promotion and retirement in the armed forces.

The judicial committees for officers and personnel of the armed forces are exclusively competent for adjudicating in all administrative disputes pertaining to decisions affecting them

Section 3: The National Defense Council

Article 197: Composition and mandate
A National Defense Council is established, presided over by the President of the Republic and including in its membership the Speakers of the Parliament and Shura Council, the Prime Minister, the Minister of Defense, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of Finance, the Minister of Interior, the Chief of the General Intelligence Service, the Chief of Staff of the armed forces, the Commander of the Navy, the Air Forces and Air Defense, the Chief of Operations for the armed forces and the Head of Military Intelligence.

The Council is responsible for matters pertaining to the methods of ensuring the safety and security of the country, for discussing the armed forces’ budget. Its opinion must be sought in relation to draft laws on the armed forces.

Its other competencies are defined by law.

The President of the Republic may invite whoever is seen as having relevant expertise to attend the Council’s meetings without having their votes counted

Section 4: Military courts

Article 198: Mandate and trial of civilians
The Military Judiciary is an independent judiciary that adjudicates exclusively in all crimes related to the armed forces, its officers and personnel; in crimes pertaining to military service which occur within military facilities; or crimes relating to armed forces facilities, equipment or secrets.

Civilians cannot stand trial before military courts except for crimes that harm the armed forces. The law defines such crimes and determines the other competencies of the Military Judiciary.

Members of the Military Judiciary are autonomous and cannot be dismissed. They share the immunities, securities, rights and duties stipulated for members of other judiciaries

Section 5: The Police

Article 199: Mandate
The police force is a statutory civil body with the President of the Republic as its Supreme Chief. It performs its duty in the service of the people, its loyalty being to the Constitution and the law, and its responsibilities to preserve order, public security and morality, to implement laws and regulations, and to safeguard the peace, dignity, rights and freedoms of citizens, all as regulated by law and in a manner that enables police personnel to carry out their duties

Part IV: Independent Bodies and Regulatory Agencies

Chapter 1: Common provisions

Article 200: Independence
Independent bodies and regulatory agencies that are defined in the Constitution have legal personality, neutrality, and technical, administrative and financial autonomy.

Additional independent bodies and regulatory agencies are defined by law.

These independent bodies and agencies are consulted about draft laws and regulations that relate to their fields of operation

Article 201: Public reports
Reports from independent bodies and regulatory agencies are presented to the President of the Republic, the Council of Representatives and Shura Council within 30 days from the date on which they are issued.

The Council of Representatives considers such reports and takes appropriate action within a period not exceeding six months from the date of receipt. The reports are presented for public opinion.

Regulatory agencies notify the appropriate investigative authorities of any evidence of violations or crime they may discover.

The foregoing is regulated by law

Article 202: Appointment of heads
The President of the Republic appoints the heads of independent bodies and regulatory agencies upon the approval of the Shura Council, for a period of four years, renewable once. They cannot be dismissed except with the consent of a majority of the Council’s members; the same prohibitions apply to them that apply to ministers

Article 203: Mandate, appointment and dismissal of personnel
For the creation of each independent body or regulatory agency, a law is issued defining competencies other than those outlined in the Constitution, regulating the agency’s work and stipulating the necessary securities to enable its personnel to carry out that work.

The law defines details of appointment, promotion, accountability and dismissal, and other conditions of employment, to ensure the personnel’s impartiality and autonomy

Chapter 2: Regulatory Agencies

Section 1: The National Anti-Corruption Commission

Article 204: Mandate
The National Anti-Corruption Commission combats corruption, deals with conflicts of interest, promotes and defines the standards of integrity and transparency, develops the national strategy concerned with such matters, ensures the implementation of said strategy in coordination with other independent bodies, and supervises the concerned agencies specified by law

Section 2: Central Auditing Organization

Article 205: Mandate
The Central Auditing Organization has control over state funds and any other body specified by law

Section 3: The Central Bank

Article 206: Mandate
The Central Bank stipulates monetary, credit and banking policies, supervises their implementation, monitors the performance of the banking system, works to establish price stability, and has exclusive rights to issue currency.

The foregoing is in accordance with the state’s overall economic policy

Chapter 3: The Economic and Social Council

Article 207: Mandate
The Economic and Social Council supports the participation of social groups in the preparation of economic, social and environmental policies, and promotes social dialogue.

The government, the Council of Representatives and the Shura Council consult the Economic and Social Council on those policies and any related draft laws.

The Council consists of at least 150 members, selected by their elected organizations of trade unions, syndicates, associations of farmers, workers and professionals, and other social groups, provided the representation of workers and farmers makes up for at least 50 percent of the Council members.

Membership of this Council may not be combined with membership of the government or either of the parliamentary chambers.

The details according to the Council is formed, its President is elected, the regulations governing its work are issued, and the means of presenting its recommendations to the state authorities are defined by law

Chapter 4: The National Electoral Commission

Article 208: Mandate
The National Electoral Commission is exclusively responsible for managing referenda and presidential, parliamentary and local elections, which includes the preparation of a database of voters, input on the division of constituencies, control over electoral funding and expenditure, electoral campaigns and other procedures, up to the announcements of results.

The Commission may be entrusted with supervising the elections of trade unions and other organizations.

The foregoing is regulated by law

Article 209: Composition and term
The National Electoral Commission is administered by a board made up of 10 members selected equally from among the deputies of the head of the Court of Cassation, the heads of the Courts of Appeal, the deputy head of the State Council, the State Affairs and Administrative Prosecution, who are to be selected by the Supreme Judicial Council and special councils depending on the circumstances from outside their board members, to be fully delegated for exclusive work at the Commission for one term of six years. The Commission’s presidency belongs to its longest-serving member from the Court of Cassation.

Elections are held to renew half of the Commission members every three years.

The Commission may refer to public figures or specialists deemed to have relevant expertise in the field of elections. The Commission has an executive body.

The foregoing is organised by law

Article 210: Balloting and counting of referenda and elections
Voting and counting of votes in referenda and elections run by the Commission is administered by its affiliated members under the overall supervision of the Board. Members are furnished with the necessary securities that enable them to perform their role with impartiality and autonomy.

As an exceptional measure, the Commission delegates the overseeing of voting and counting of votes to members of the judiciary for at least 10 years from the date the Constitution is ratified, all as regulated by law

Article 211: Dispute resolution
The Supreme Administrative Court adjudicates on appeals brought against the decisions of the National Electoral Commission pertaining to referendums and parliamentary or presidential elections and their results. Appeals pertaining to local elections are brought before an administrative court.

The law regulates the procedure for appeals and the timeline for adjudication in a manner that does not disrupt the electoral process or the announcement of final results. The final results of referendums or presidential elections may not be challenged after their announcement.

In all cases, the announcement of results must take place within a period not exceeding eight days from the ballot date

Chapter 5: Independent bodies

Section 1: The Supreme Authority for Endowment Affairs

Article 212: Mandate
The High Authority for Endowment Affairs regulates, supervises and monitors public and private endowments, ensures their adherence to sensible administrative and economic standards, and raises awareness about endowments in society

Section 2: The Supreme Authority for Heritage Conservation

Article 213: Mandate
The Supreme Authority for Heritage Conservation regulates the means of protecting the cultural and architectural heritage of Egyptians, supervises its collection and documentation, safeguards its assets, and revives awareness of its contributions to human civilization.

This Authority undertakes the documentation of the 25 January revolution

Section 3: The National Council for Education and Scientific Research

Article 214: Mandate
The National Council for Education and Scientific Research develops the national strategy for education in all its forms and all its stages, ensures integration between the stages, promotes scientific research, develops national standards for the quality of education and scientific research, and monitors the implementation of such standards

Section 4: Independent Press and Media Organizations

Article 215: Mandate
The National Media Council regulates the affairs of radio, television, and printed and digital press, among others.

The Council ensures the freedom of media in all its forms, safeguards plurality, fights centralization and monopoly, protects the interests of the public, and establishes controls and regulations ensuring the commitment of media to adhere to professional and ethical standards, to preserve the Arabic language, and to observe the values and constructive traditions of society

Article 216: State owned media
The National Press and Media Association manages state-owned press and media institutions and undertakes the development of them and their assets to maximize their national investment value and ensure their adherence to sensible professional, administrative and economic standards

Part V: Final and Transitional Provisions

Chapter 1: Amendments to the Constitution

Article 217: Preliminary procedures
The amendment of one or more of the Constitution articles may be requested by the President of the Republic or the Council of Representatives. The request specifies the articles to be amended and the reasons for the amendments, and if initiated by the Council of Representatives is signed by at least one fifth of the members of the Council of Representatives.

In all cases, the Council of Representatives and Shura Council debate the request within 30 days from the date of its receipt. Each council issues its decision to accept the request in whole or in part by two- thirds majority of its members.

If the request is rejected, the same amendments may not be requested again before the next legislative term

Article 218: Parliamentary approval and referendum
If the amendment request is approved by both chambers, each of them discusses the text of the articles to be amended within 60 days from the date of approval. If approved by a two-thirds majority of each chamber, the amendment is put to public referendum within 30 days from the date of approval.

The amendment is effective from the date on which the referendum’s result is announced

Chapter 2: General Provisions

Article 219: Principles of Islamic Sharia
The principles of Islamic Sharia include general evidence, foundational rules, rules of jurisprudence, and credible sources accepted in Sunni doctrines and by the larger community

Article 220: Capital
Cairo is the capital of the state. The capital may be moved by law

Article 221: National flag
The national flag, the state’s emblem, decorations, insignia, seal and the national anthem are defined by law

Article 222: Validity of existing law
Provisions stipulated by laws and regulations prior to the proclamation of this Constitution remain valid and in force. They may not be amended or repealed except in accordance with the regulations and procedures prescribed in the Constitution

Article 223: Promulgation of laws
Laws are published in the Official Gazette within 15 days from the date of their issuance, to be effective 30 days from the day following the date of publication, unless the law specifies a different date.

Provisions of the laws apply only from the date of their enforcement and have no retroactive effect. However, with the approval of a two-thirds majority of the members of the Council of Representatives, provisions to the contrary may be made in articles pertaining to non-criminal and non-tax-related matters

Article 224: Electoral system
Elections of the Council of Representatives, Shura Council and local councils are held in accordance with the system of individual candidacy, a list-based system, a combination of the two, or any other electoral system defined by law

Article 225: Entry into force
This Constitution is in force as of the date of announcing the public approval of it in a referendum, based on a majority of valid votes of the referendum participants

Chapter 3: Transitional Provisions

Article 226: Presidential term
The current presidential term comes to an end four years from the date of the President taking office. He may only be re-elected only once

Article 227: End of terms
Every position for which a limited term is stipulated in the Constitution or by law, whether a non- renewable or renewable once, is calculated from the date the position was assumed. The term of office also expires if the person in office reaches the retirement age as prescribed by law

Article 228: High Electoral Committee
The High Electoral Committee, existing at the time this Constitution comes into effect, undertakes the full supervision of the first parliamentary elections. The funds of the Committee and of the High Presidential Elections Committee are transferred to the National Electoral Commission, as soon as the latter is formed

Article 229: First parliamentary elections
Procedures for the first parliamentary elections begins within 60 days of this Constitution coming into effect, the first legislative term held within 10 days from the date of announcing the final result of the elections. Workers and farmers shall be represented in this council by not less than 50% of its members. A worker is defined as anyone who is employed by another for a wage or salary. A farmer is anyone whose occupation has been in agriculture for at least ten years prior to his candidacy for parliament. The law shall specify the rules and conditions necessary for consideration as a worker or farmer

Article 230: Existing Shura Council
The existing Shura Council assumes full legislative authority until the new Council of Representatives is formed. Full legislative authority will then be transferred to the Council of Representatives, until the election of a new Shura Council, which occurs within one year from the start of the Council of Representatives’ session

Article 231: First legislative elections
The first legislative elections following the adoption of this Constitution are held in the following manner: two-thirds of the seats are to be won by a list-based electoral system and one-third by individual candidacy, with parties and independent candidates allowed to run in each

Article 232: Leaders of the National Democratic Party
The leadership of the dissolved National Democratic Party are banned from political work and prohibited to run for presidential or legislative elections for a period of 10 years from the date of the adoption of this Constitution. The term ‘leadership’ is designed to include everyone who, on 25 January 2011, was a member of the Secretariat of the Party, the Policies Committee or the Political Bureau, or anyone who was a member of the People’s Assembly or the Shura Council during the two legislative terms preceding the Revolution

Article 233: Composition of the Supreme Constitutional Court
The Supreme Constitutional Court, after this Constitution enters into force, shall be composed of its current head and its ten most senior members. The rest of the members shall return to the posts that they occupied prior to their appointment to the Court

Article 234: Appeals against criminal convictions
The law on appeals of criminal convictions that is mentioned in paragraph three of Article 77 of the Constitution will apply one year after the Constitution has come into force

Article 235: Existing local administration system
The existing Local Administration system shall remain in place, and the system laid down in this Constitution applied gradually over the 10 years following from the date of its adoption

Article 236: Constitutional declarations
Constitutional declarations issued by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces and by the President of the Republic from 11 February 2011 to the date of the adoption of this Constitution are hereby repealed. Their consequent effects remain valid and in force and may not be appealed

Constitution of 2014
18 January 2014
[Translated by International IDEA]

Preamble

In the Name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

This is Our Constitution

Egypt is the gift of the Nile and the gift of Egyptians to humanity.

Blessed with a unique location and history, the Arab nation of Egypt is the heart of the whole world. It is the meeting point of its civilizations and cultures and the crossroads of its maritime transportation and communications. It is the tip of Africa on the Mediterranean and the estuary of its greatest river: the Nile.

This is Egypt, an immortal homeland to Egyptians, and a message of peace and love to all peoples.

In the beginning of history, the dawn of human conscience rose and shone forth in the hearts of our great ancestors, uniting their good intention to build the first central state that regulated and organized the life of Egyptians on the banks of the Nile. It is where they created the most amazing wonders of civilization, and where their hearts looked up to the heavens before earth knew the three revealed religions.

Egypt is the cradle of religions and the banner of glory of the revealed religions.

On its land, Moses grew up, the light of God appeared, and the message descended on Mount Sinai.

On its land, Egyptians welcomed Virgin Mary and her baby and offered up thousands of martyrs in defense of the Church of Jesus.

When the Seal of the Messengers Mohamed (Peace and Blessings Be Upon Him) was sent to all mankind to perfect the sublime morals, our hearts and minds were opened to the light of Islam. We were the best soldiers on Earth to fight for the cause of God, and we disseminated the message of truth and religious sciences across the world.

This is Egypt; a homeland that we live in as much as it lives in us.

In the modern age, minds were enlightened, humanity became mature, and nations and peoples progressed on the path of science, raising the banners of freedom and equality. Mohamed Ali founded the modern Egyptian state with a national army as its pillar. Refaa, the son of Al-Azhar, prayed that the homeland become "a place of common happiness for its people." We, Egyptians, strived to keep up with the pace of development, and offered up martyrs and made sacrifices in several uprisings and revolutions until our patriotic army delivered victory to the sweeping popular will in the “Jan 25 – June 30” Revolution that called for bread, freedom and human dignity within a framework of social justice, and brought back the homeland’s free will.

This revolution is but an extension to a process of national struggle whose brightest symbols were Ahmed Oraby, Mostafa Kamel, and Mohamed Farid. It was the capstone of two great revolutions in our modern history:

The 1919 revolution that had rid Egypt and the Egyptians of the British guardianship, and had established the principle of citizenship and equality between the people of the same country. Its leader, Saad Zaghloul, and his successor, Mosfata El-Nahhas, walked the path of democracy, asserting that “Truth is above power and the nation is above the government”. During this revolution, Talaat Harb laid down the cornerstone of the national economy.

The July 23, 1952 revolution that was led by the leader Gamal Abdel Nasser and was embraced by the popular will achieved the dream of generations for evacuation and independence. As a result, Egypt affirmed its Arab allegiance, opened up to its African continent and Muslim world, supported liberation movements across continents, and took firm steps on the path of development and social justice.

This revolution represents an extension of the revolutionary march of Egyptian patriotism, and supports the strong bond between the Egyptian people and their patriotic army that bore the trust and responsibility of protecting the homeland. Thanks to it, we achieved victory in our greatest battles including driving off the 1956 Tripartite Aggression and the glorious victory of October that granted President Sadat a special place in our recent history.

Compared to major revolutions in the history of mankind, the Jan 25 – June 30 Revolution is a unique revolution, because of the heavy popular participation involved -- which was estimated to be in the tens of millions -- and the significant role of youth who aspire to a brighter future, the masses who transcended class and ideology to reach out to more expansive patriotic and human horizons, the manner in which the people’s army protected the popular will and the blessings granted to it by Al-Azhar and the patriotic church. It is also unique because of its peacefulness and ambition to achieve freedom and social justice together.

This revolution is a sign and a good omen. It is a sign of a past that is still present and a good omen of a future to which all humanity aspires.

The world has almost forgotten about an age that was torn by conflicts of interest between the east and the west, and the north and the south; an age where disputes and wars erupted between classes and peoples, where risks grew, threatening the existence of mankind and life on Earth, which God created for us. Humanity hopes to move from the age of maturity to the age of wisdom to build a new world where truth and justice prevail, and where freedoms and human rights are protected. We, Egyptians, believe that our revolution is an opportunity to return to help write a new history for mankind.

We believe that we are capable of using the past as an inspiration, stirring up the present, and making our way to the future. We are capable of developing this homeland that develops us.

We believe that every citizen is entitled to live in this homeland in safety and security, and that every citizen is entitled to a today and a tomorrow.

We believe in democracy as a path, a future, and a way of life; in political multiplicity; and in the peaceful transfer of power. We affirm the right of the people to make their future. They, alone, are the source of authority. Freedom, human dignity, and social justice are a right of every citizen. Sovereignty in a sovereign homeland belongs to us and future generations.

We are now drafting a Constitution that embodies the dream of generations of a prosperous united society and of a fair state that achieves the aspirations of today and tomorrow for individuals and society.

We are now drafting a Constitution that completes building a modern democratic state with a civil government.

We are drafting a Constitution that closes the door for any corruption or tyranny, heals the wounds of the past from the time of the old Eloquent Peasant to the victims of negligence and the martyrs of the revolution in our time, and relieves our people of the injustice they have suffered from for long.

We are drafting a Constitution that affirms that the principles of Islamic Sharia are the principle source of legislation, and that the reference for interpretation thereof is the relevant texts in the collected rulings of the Supreme Constitutional Court.

We are drafting a Constitution that paves the way to the future for us, and which is in line with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which we took part in the drafting of and approved.

We are drafting a Constitution that maintains our freedom and protects the nation against every threat against it or against our national unity.

We are drafting a Constitution that achieves equality between us in rights and duties with no discrimination.

We are the citizens. We are the Egyptian people, sovereigns in a sovereign homeland. This is our will and this is the Constitution of our revolution.

This is our Constitution.

Chapter One: The State

Article 1: Nature of the Republic
The Arab Republic of Egypt is a sovereign state, united and indivisible, where nothing is dispensable, and its system is democratic republic based on citizenship and the rule of law.

Egypt is part of the Arab nation and enhances its integration and unity. It is part of the Muslim world, belongs to the African continent, is proud of its Asian dimension, and contributes to building human civilization

Article 2: Islam, Principles of Islamic Sharia
Islam is the religion of the state and Arabic is its official language. The principles of Islamic Sharia are the principle source of legislation

Article 3: Christian and Jewish religious affairs
The principles of the laws of Egyptian Christians and Jews are the main source of laws regulating their personal status, religious affairs, and selection of spiritual leaders

Article 4: Sovereignty
Sovereignty belongs to the people alone, which exercises it and protects it. They are the source of power. They safeguard their national unity, which is based on the principle of equality, justice and equal opportunity between citizens, as provided in this Constitution

Article 5: Political system
The political system is based on political and partisan multiplicity, the peaceful transfer of power, the separation and balance of powers, authority going with responsibility, and respect for human rights and freedoms, as set out in the Constitution

Article 6: Citizenship
Citizenship is a right to anyone born to an Egyptian father or an Egyptian mother. Being legally recognized and obtaining official papers proving his personal data is a right guaranteed and organized by law.

Requirements for acquiring citizenship are specified by law

Chapter Two: Basic Components of Society

Section One: Social Components

Article 7: Al-Azhar
Al-Azhar is an independent scientific Islamic institution, with exclusive competence over its own affairs. It is the main authority for religious sciences, and Islamic affairs. It is responsible for preaching Islam and disseminating the religious sciences and the Arabic language in Egypt and the world.

The state shall provide enough financial allocations to achieve its purposes.

Al-Azhar’s Grand Sheikh is independent and cannot be dismissed. The method of appointing the Grand Sheikh from among the members of the Council of Senior Scholars is to be determined by law

Article 8: Social solidarity
Society is based on social solidarity.

The state commits to achieving social justice, providing the means to achieve social solidarity to ensure a decent life for all citizens, in the manner organized by law

Article 9: Equal opportunity
The state ensures equal opportunity for all citizens without discrimination

Article 10: Family as the basis of society
Family is the basis of society and is based on religion, morality, and patriotism. The state protects its cohesion and stability, and the consolidation of its values

Article 11: The place of women, motherhood and childhood
The state commits to achieving equality between women and men in all civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.

The state commits to taking the necessary measures to ensure appropriate representation of women in the houses of parliament, in the manner specified by law. It grants women the right to hold public posts and high management posts in the state, and to appointment in judicial bodies and entities without discrimination.

The state commits to the protection of women against all forms of violence, and ensures women empowerment to reconcile the duties of a woman toward her family and her work requirements.

The state ensures care and protection and care for motherhood and childhood, and for breadwinning, and elderly women, and women most in need

Article 12: Right to work, forced labor
Work is a right, a duty, and an honor guaranteed by the state. There can be no forced labor except in accordance with the law and for the purpose of performing a public service for a defined period of time and in return for a fair wage, without prejudice to the basic rights of those assigned to the work

Article 13: Worker Rights
The state commits to protecting worker rights, and works on building balanced work relationships between the two sides of the production process. It ensures means for collective negotiations and works on protecting workers against the risks of work, ensures that conditions for professional security, safety and health are met, and prohibits arbitrary dismissal. All the foregoing is as organized by law

Article 14: State employment
Public posts are a right for citizens on the basis of merit, with no favoritism or mediation. Public posts are an assignment in service of the people. The state ensures the rights and protection of civil servants, and that they shall perform their duties in service of the interests of the people. They may not be dismissed outside of disciplinary action except in those situations set out by law

Article 15: Right to strike
Striking peacefully is a right which is organized by law

Article 16: Martyrs and wounded of the revolution
The state commits to honoring the martyrs of the nation, caring for the wounded of the revolution, elderly war veterans, the wounded, and families of those missing in war, as well as their equals, and the wounded in security operations, their wives, children and parents. It works on providing them with job opportunities. The foregoing will be organized by law.

The state encourages the contribution of civil society to achieving these objectives

Article 17: Social security services
The state provides social security services.

All citizens who have no access to the social security system have the right to social security to ensure a decent life, if they are unable to support themselves and their families in the event of incapacity to work, old age or unemployment.

The state works to provide appropriate pensions to small farmers, agricultural workers, hunters and informal labor in accordance with the law.

Insurance and pension funds are private and enjoy all forms of protection afforded to public funds. Together with their returns, they are a right of their beneficiaries. They shall be invested in a safe manner and managed by an independent entity, in accordance with the law.

The state guarantees funds for insurance and pensions

Article 18: Health care
Every citizen is entitled to health and to comprehensive health care with quality criteria. The state guarantees to maintain and support public health facilities that provide health services to the people, and work on enhancing their efficiency and their fair geographical distribution.

The state commits to allocate a percentage of government expenditure that is no less than 3% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to health. The percentage will gradually increase to reach global rates.

The state commits to the establishment of a comprehensive health care system for all Egyptians covering all diseases. The contribution of citizens to its subscriptions or their exemption therefrom is based on their income rates.

Denying any form of medical treatment to any human in emergency or life-threatening situations is a crime.

The state commits to improving the conditions of physicians, nursing staff, and health sector workers, and achieving equity for them.

All health facilities and health related products, materials, and health-related means of advertisement are subject to state oversight. The state encourages the participation of the private and public sectors in providing health care services as per the law

Article 19: Education
Every citizen has the right to education with the aim of building the Egyptian character, maintaining national identity, planting the roots of scientific thinking, developing talents, promoting innovation and establishing civilizational and spiritual values and the concepts of citizenship, tolerance and non- discrimination. The state commits to uphold its aims in education curricula and methods, and to provide education in accordance with global quality criteria.

Education is obligatory until the end of the secondary stage or its equivalent. The state grants free education in different stages in state educational institutions as per the law.

The state commits to allocating a percentage of government spending that is no less than 4% of the GDP for education. It will gradually increase this until it reaches global rates.

The state oversees education to ensure that all public and private schools and institutes abide by its educational policies

Article 20: Technical education, professional training
The state commits to encourage and develop technical education and professional training and expand all types thereof in accordance with global quality criteria, in keeping with the needs of the labor market

Article 21: Academic independence
The state guarantees the independence of universities, scientific and linguistic academies. It commits to providing university education in accordance with global quality criteria, and to developing free university education in state universities and institutes as per the law.

The state allocates a percentage of the government expenditure that is no less than 2% of Gross National Product (GNP). It will gradually increase until it reaches global rates.

The state works on encouraging the establishment of non-profit public universities. The state guarantees the quality of education in private and public universities, their commitment to global quality criteria, preparing their educational and research cadres, and allocating a sufficient percentage of its returns to develop the educational and research process

Article 22: Teachers
Teachers and members of the teaching staff and their assistants are the main pillar of education. The state guarantees the development of their academic competencies and professional skills, and care for their financial and moral rights in order to ensure the quality of education and achieve its objectives

Article 23: Scientific research
The state grants the freedom of scientific research and encourages its institutions as a means to achieving national sovereignty, and building a knowledge economy. The state sponsors researchers and inventors, and allocates a percentage of government expenditures that is no less than 1% of Gross National Product to scientific research. It will gradually increase until it reaches global rates.

The state commits to provide effective means of contribution for the private and public sectors and the contribution of expatriate Egyptians to the development of scientific research

Article 24: Arabic language, religious education and national history
The Arabic language, religious education, and national history in all its stages are core subjects of pre- university public and private education. Universities are committed to teaching human rights, and professional morals and ethics relating to various academic disciplines

Article 25: Illiteracy
The state commits to developing a comprehensive plan to eradicate alphabetical and digital illiteracy for all citizens from all age groups. It commits to developing implementation mechanisms with the participation of civil society institutions according to a specific timeline

Article 26: Civil titles
The institution of civil titles is prohibited

Section Two: Economic Components

Article 27: Economic system
The economic system aims at achieving prosperity in the country through sustainable development and social justice to guarantee an increase in the real growth rate of the national economy, raising the standard of living, increasing job opportunities, reducing unemployment rates and eliminating poverty.

The economic system is committed to the criteria of transparency and governance, supporting competitiveness, encouraging investment, achieving balanced growth with regards to geography, sector and the environment; preventing monopolistic practices, taking into account the financial and commercial balance and a fair tax system; regulating market mechanisms; guaranteeing different types of ownership; and achieving balance between the interests of different parties to maintain the rights of workers and protect consumers.

The economic system is socially committed to ensuring equal opportunities and a fair distribution of development returns, to reducing the gaps between incomes by setting a minimum wage and pension to ensure a decent life, and setting a maximum wage in state agencies for whoever works for a wage as per the law

Article 28: Production and service based economy activity
Economic production, service-based and information-based activities are key components of the national economy. The state commits to protecting them, increasing their competiveness, providing an environment that attracts investment, and works on increasing production, encouraging exports, and regulating imports.

The state gives special attention to small and medium enterprises in all fields. It works on regulating and training the informal sector

Article 29: Agriculture
Agriculture is a basic component of the national economy.

The state commits to protecting and increasing land under cultivation, and incriminating encroachments thereon. It works on developing the countryside, raising the standard of living of its inhabitants and protecting it from agricultural risks, and works on developing agricultural and animal production, and encouraging industries based thereon.

The state commits to providing the requirements of agricultural and animal production and buying basic agricultural crops at appropriate prices to achieve a profit margin for farmers in agreement with agricultural unions, syndicates and agricultural associations. The state also commits to the allocation of a percentage of reclaimed lands to small farmers and youth graduates, and to the protection of farmers and agricultural workers against exploitation. All the foregoing will take place in the manner organized by law

Article 30: Fisheries
The state commits to protecting fisheries, protecting and supporting fishermen, and empowering them to carry out their work without causing damages to eco-systems, in the manner organized by law

Article 31: Information Space Security
The security of information space is an integral part of the system of national economy and security. The state commits to taking the necessary measures to preserve it in the manner organized by law

Article 32: Natural resources
Natural resources belong to the people. The state commits to preserving such resources, to their sound exploitation, to preventing their depletion, and to take into consideration the rights of future generations to them.

The state commits to making the best use of renewable energy resources, motivating investment, and encouraging relevant scientific research. The state works on encouraging the manufacture of raw materials, and increasing their added value according to economic feasibility.

Disposing of the state’s public property is forbidden. Granting the right to exploit natural resources or a concession to a public utility shall take place by law for a period not exceeding 30 years.

Granting the right to exploit quarries and small mines and salterns, or granting a concession to a public utility shall take place for a period not exceeding 30 years based on a law.

The law sets the provisions for disposing of state private property, and the rules and procedures regulating such

Article 33: Ownership
The state protects ownership, which is three types: Public ownership, private ownership, and cooperative ownership

Article 34: Public Property
Public property is inviolable and may not be infringed upon. It is the duty of every citizen to protect it in accordance with the law

Article 35: Private property
Private property is protected. The right to inherit property is guaranteed. Private property may not be sequestrated except in cases specified by law, and by a court order. Ownership of property may not be confiscated except for the public good and with just compensation that is paid in advance as per the law

Article 36: Private sector’s social responsibility
The state encourages the private sector to perform its social responsibility in serving the national economy and society

Article 37: Cooperative Property
Cooperative property is protected. The state cares for cooperatives, and the law guarantees its protection and support, and ensures its independence.

It cannot be dissolved, nor its boards, except by court order

Article 38: Taxation
The taxation system and other public levies aim to develop state resources, and achieve social justice and economic development.

Public taxes cannot be established, modified, or cancelled except by law. There can be no exemptions except in cases prescribed by law. It is prohibited to require anyone to pay additional taxes or fees except within the limits of the law.

When imposing taxes, it must be taken into account that the tax system has multiple sources. The taxes imposed on the incomes of individuals are progressive multi-tier taxes that according to their tax capacity. The tax system ensures the promotion of heavy labor industries, and incentivizing their role in economic, social, and cultural development.

The state commits to the development of the tax system, and adoption of modern systems to achieve efficiency, ease and accuracy in tax collection. The law specifies the methods and tools to collect taxes, fees, and any other sovereign returns, and what is deposited in the state treasury.

Paying taxes is a duty, and tax evasion is a crime

Article 39: Savings
Saving is a national duty that is protected and encouraged by the state. The state safeguards savings in accordance with the law

Article 40: Confiscation of property
Public confiscation of property is prohibited.

Private confiscation is prohibited except based on a court judgment

Article 41: Housing
The state commits to the implementation of a housing program that aims at achieving balance between population growth rates and the resources available, maximizing investment in human energy, and improving its features, within the framework of achieving sustainable development

Article 42: Workers’ share in management
Workers have a share in the management of projects and their profits. They are committed to developing production and implementing the plan in their production units as per the law. Maintaining the tools of production is a national duty.

Workers’ representatives on the boards of public sector units are 50 percent of the number of elected members. Their representation on the boards of public business sector companies takes place in accordance with the law.

The law regulates the representation of small farmers and small craftsmen that is no less than 80 per cent of the boards of directors of agricultural, industrial and trade cooperatives

Article 43: Suez Canal
The state commits to protecting, developing and maintaining the Suez Canal as an international waterway that it owns. It is also committed to the development of the canal sector as a significant economic pillar

Article 44: The Nile
The state commits to protecting the Nile River, maintaining Egypt’s historic rights thereto, rationalizing and maximizing its benefits, not wasting its water or polluting it. The state commits to protecting its mineral water, to adopting methods appropriate to achieve water safety, and to supporting scientific research in this field.

Every citizen has the right to enjoy the Nile River. It is prohibited to encroach upon it or to harm the river environment. The state guarantees to remove encroachments thereon. The foregoing is regulated by law

Article 45: Seas, Beaches, lakes, waterways, mineral water and natural reserves
The state commits to protecting its seas, beaches, lakes, waterways, mineral water, and natural reserves.

It is prohibited to encroach upon, pollute, or use them in a manner that contradicts their nature. Every citizen has the right to enjoy them as regulated by law. The state also commits to the protection and development of green space in urban areas; the protection of plants, livestock and fisheries; the protection of endangered species; and the prevention of cruelty to animals. All the foregoing takes place as regulated by law

Article 46: Environment
Every individual has the right to live in a healthy, sound and balanced environment. Its protection is a national duty. The state is committed to taking the necessary measures to preserve it, avoid harming it, rationally use its natural resources to ensure that sustainable development is achieved, and guarantee the rights of future generations thereto

Section Three: Cultural Components

Article 47: Cultural identity
The state is committed to protecting Egyptian cultural identity with its diverse civilizational origins

Article 48: Right to culture
Culture is a right of every citizen that is guaranteed by the state. The state is committed to support it and provide all types of cultural materials to the different groups of people without discrimination based on financial capacity, geographical location, or anything else. The state gives special attention to remote areas and the groups most in need.

The state encourages translation from and to Arabic

Article 49: Monuments
The state commits to protecting and preserving antiquities and their areas, and to maintaining them, renovating them, working to retrieve those that have been taken, and organizing and supervising excavations thereof.

It is prohibited to give away any of them as gifts or exchange them.

Attacks upon them and trafficking in them is a crime for which there is no statute of limitations

Article 50: Material and moral civilizational and cultural heritage
Egypt’s material and moral civilizational and cultural heritage of all types and from all of the Pharaonic, Coptic, Islamic, and modern periods are a national and human heritage that the state commits to protect and maintain. The same applies to the modern architectural, literary and artistic cultural stock. Any attack thereon is a crime punishable by law. The state gives special attention to maintain the components of cultural diversity

Chapter Three: Public Rights, Freedoms and Duties

Article 51: Human dignity
Dignity is a right for every person that may not be infringed upon. The state shall respect, guarantee and protect it

Article 52: Torture
All forms of torture are a crime with no statute of limitations

Article 53: Equality in public rights and duties
Citizens are equal before the law, possess equal rights and public duties, and may not be discriminated against on the basis of religion, belief, sex, origin, race, color, language, disability, social class, political or geographical affiliation, or for any other reason.

Discrimination and incitement to hate are crimes punishable by law.

The state shall take all necessary measures to eliminate all forms of discrimination, and the law shall regulate the establishment of an independent commission for this purpose

Article 54: Personal freedom
Personal freedom is a natural right which is safeguarded and cannot be infringed upon. Except in cases of in flagrante delicto, citizens may only be apprehended, searched, arrested, or have their freedoms restricted by a causal judicial warrant necessitated by an investigation.

All those whose freedoms have been restricted shall be immediately informed of the causes therefor, notified of their rights in writing, be allowed to immediately contact their family and lawyer, and be brought before the investigating authority within twenty-four hours of their freedoms having been restricted.

Questioning of the person may only begin once his lawyer is present. If he has no lawyer, a lawyer will be appointed for him. Those with disabilities shall be provided all necessary aid, according to procedures stipulated in the law.

Those who have their freedom restricted and others possess the right of recourse before the judiciary. Judgment must be rendered within a week from such recourse, otherwise the petitioner shall be immediately released.

The law shall regulate preventive detention, its duration, causes, and which cases are eligible for compensation that the state shall discharge for preventative detention or for execution of a penalty that had been executed by virtue of a judgment that is overruled by a final judgment.

In all cases, the accused may be brought to criminal trial for crimes that he may be detained for only in the presence of an authorized or appointed lawyer

Article 55: Due process
All those who are apprehended, detained or have their freedom restricted shall be treated in a way that preserves their dignity. They may not be tortured, terrorized, or coerced. They may not be physically or mentally harmed, or arrested and confined in designated locations that are appropriate according to humanitarian and health standards. The state shall provide means of access for those with disabilities.

Any violation of the above is a crime and the perpetrator shall be punished under the law.

The accused possesses the right to remain silent. Any statement that is proven to have been given by the detainee under pressure of any of that which is stated above, or the threat of such, shall be considered null and void

Article 56: Supervision of prisons
Prison is a house for reform and rehabilitation.

Prisons and detention centers shall be subject to judicial oversight. All that which violates the dignity of the person and or endangers his health is forbidden.

The law shall regulate the provisions to reform and rehabilitate those who have been convicted, and to facilitate a decent life once they are released

Article 57: Private life
Private life is inviolable, safeguarded and may not be infringed upon.

Telegraph, postal, and electronic correspondence, telephone calls, and other forms of communication are inviolable, their confidentiality is guaranteed and they may only be confiscated, examined or monitored by causal judicial order, for a limited period of time, and in cases specified by the law.

The state shall protect the rights of citizens to use all forms of public means of communication, which may not be arbitrarily disrupted, stopped or withheld from citizens, as regulated by the law

Article 58: Inviolability of homes
Homes are inviolable. Except in cases of danger, or if a call for help is made, they may not be entered, searched, monitored or wiretapped except by causal judicial warrant specifying the place, time and purpose thereof. All of the above is to be conducted in cases specified by the law, and in the manner prescribed. Upon entering or searching homes, those inside shall be notified and informed of the warrant issued in this regard

Article 59: Right to safety
Every person has the right to a secure life. The state shall provide security and reassurance for citizens, and all those residing within its territory

Article 60: Inviolability of the human body
The human body is inviolable. Any assault, defilement or mutilation thereof is a crime punishable by law. Organ trafficking is forbidden, and no medical or scientific experiment may be performed thereon without the documented free consent of the subject, according to the established principles of the medical field as regulated by law

Article 61: Tissue and organ donation
Donation of tissues and organs is a gift of life. Every human has the right to donate his body organs during his lifetime or after his death by virtue of a documented consent or will. The state commits to the establishment of a mechanism to regulate the rules for organ donation and transplant in accordance with the law

Article 62: Freedom of movement
Freedom of movement, residence and emigration is guaranteed.

No citizen may be expelled from state territory or banned from returning thereto.

No citizen may be banned from leaving state territory placed under house arrest or banned from residing in a certain area except by a causal judicial order for a specified period of time, and in cases specified by the law

Article 63: Forced migration
All forms of arbitrary forced migration of citizens are forbidden. Violations of such are a crime without a statute of limitations

Article 64: Freedom of belief
Freedom of belief is absolute.

The freedom of practicing religious rituals and establishing places of worship for the followers of revealed religions is a right organized by law

Article 65: Freedom of thought
Freedom of thought and opinion is guaranteed.

All individuals have the right to express their opinion through speech, writing, imagery, or any other means of expression and publication

Article 66: Freedom of research
Freedom of scientific research is guaranteed. The state shall sponsor researchers and inventors and protect and work to apply their innovations

Article 67: Artistic and literary creation
Freedom of artistic and literary creation is guaranteed. The state shall undertake to promote art and literature, sponsor creators and protect their creations, and provide the necessary means of encouragement to achieve this end.

No lawsuits may be initiated or filed to suspend or confiscate any artistic, literary, or intellectual work, or against their creators except through the public prosecution. No punishments of custodial sanction may be imposed for crimes committed because of the public nature of the artistic, literal or intellectual product. The law shall specify the penalties for crimes related to the incitement of violence, discrimination between citizens, or impugning the honor of individuals.

In such cases, the court may force the sentenced to pay punitive compensation to the party aggrieved by the crime, in addition to the original compensations due to him for the damages it caused him. All the foregoing takes place in accordance with the law

Article 68: Access to information and official documents
Information, data, statistics and official documents are owned by the people. Disclosure thereof from various sources is a right guaranteed by the state to all citizens. The state shall provide and make them available to citizens with transparency. The law shall organize rules for obtaining such, rules of availability and confidentiality, rules for depositing and preserving such, and lodging complaints against refusals to grant access thereto. The law shall specify penalties for withholding information or deliberately providing false information.

State institutions shall deposit official documents with the National Library and Archives once they are no longer in use. They shall also protect them, secure them from loss or damage, and restore and digitize them using all modern means and instruments, as per the law

Article 69: Intellectual property rights
The state shall protect all types of intellectual property in all fields, and shall establish a specialized body to uphold the rights of Egyptians and their legal protection, as regulated by law

Article 70: Freedom of the press
Freedom of press and printing, along with paper, visual, audio and digital distribution is guaranteed. Egyptians -- whether natural or legal persons, public or private -- have the right to own and issue newspapers and establish visual, audio and digital media outlets.

Newspapers may be issued once notification is given as regulated by law. The law shall regulate ownership and establishment procedures for visual and radio broadcast stations in addition to online newspapers

Article 71: Freedom of publication
It is prohibited to censor, confiscate, suspend or shut down Egyptian newspapers and media outlets in any way. Exception may be made for limited censorship in time of war or general mobilization.

No custodial sanction shall be imposed for crimes committed by way of publication or the public nature thereof. Punishments for crimes connected with incitement to violence or discrimination amongst citizens, or impugning the honor of individuals are specified by law

Article 72: Independence of press institutions
The state shall ensure the independence of all press institutions and owned media outlets, in a way that ensures their neutrality and expressing all opinions, political and intellectual trends and social interests; and guarantees equality and equal opportunity in addressing public opinion

Article 73: Freedom of House
Citizens have the right to organize public meetings, marches, demonstrations and all forms of peaceful protest, while not carrying weapons of any type, upon providing notification as regulated by law.

The right to peaceful, private meetings is guaranteed, without the need for prior notification. Security forces may not to attend, monitor or eavesdrop on such gatherings

Article 74: Freedom to form political parties
Citizens have the right to form political parties by notification as regulated by the law. No political activity may be exercised or political parties formed on the basis of religion, or discrimination based on sex, origin, sect or geographic location, nor may any activity be practiced that is hostile to democracy, secretive, or which possesses a military or quasi-military nature.

Parties may only dissolved by a judicial ruling

Article 75: Right to establish associations
Citizens have the right to form non-governmental organizations and institutions on a democratic basis, which shall acquire legal personality upon notification.

They shall be allowed to engage in activities freely. Administrative agencies shall not interfere in the affairs of such organizations, dissolve them, their board of directors, or their board of trustees except by a judicial ruling.

The establishment or continuation of non-governmental organizations and institutions whose structure and activities are operated and conducted in secret, or which possess a military or quasi-military character are forbidden, as regulated by law

Article 76: Right to form syndicates
The establishment of federations and syndicates on a democratic basis is a right guaranteed by law. Such federations and syndicates will possess legal personality, be able to practice their activities freely, contribute to improving the skills of its members, defend their rights and protect their interests.

The state guarantees the independence of all federations and syndicates. The boards of directors thereof may only dissolved by a judicial ruling.

Syndicates may not be established within governmental bodies

Article 77: Trade unions
The law shall regulate the establishment and administration of professional syndicates on a democratic basis, guarantee their independence, and specify their resources and the way members are recorded and held accountable for their behavior while performing their professional activities, according to ethical codes of moral and professional conduct.

No profession may establish more than one syndicate. Receivership may not be imposed nor may administrative bodies intervene in the affairs of such syndicates, and their boards of directors may only be dissolved by a judicial ruling. All legislation pertaining to a given profession shall be submitted to the relevant syndicate for consultation

Article 78: Housing
The state guarantees citizens the right to decent, safe and healthy housing, in a way that preserves human dignity and achieves social justice.

The state shall draft a national housing plan that upholds environmental particularity, and guarantees the contribution of personal and collaborative initiatives in its implementation. The state shall also regulate the use of state lands and provide them with basic facilities, as part of a comprehensive urban planning framework for cities and villages and a population distribution strategy. This must be done in a way that serves the public interest, improves the quality of life for citizens and preserves the rights of future generations.

The state shall draft a comprehensive, national plan to address the problem of informal areas that includes providing infrastructure and facilities and improving quality of life and public health. The state shall also guarantee the provision of necessary resources to implement the plan within a specified time frame

Article 79: Food
Each citizen has the right to healthy, sufficient amounts of food and clean water. The state shall provide food resources to all citizens. It also ensures food sovereignty in a sustainable manner, and guarantees the protection of agricultural biological diversity and types of local plants to preserve the rights of generations

Article 80: Rights of the child
A child is considered to be anyone who has not reached 18 years of age. Children have the right to be named and possess identification papers, have access to free compulsory vaccinations, health and family care or an alternative, basic nutrition, safe shelter, religious education, and emotional and cognitive development.

The state guarantees the rights of children who have disabilities, and ensures their rehabilitation and incorporation into society.

The state shall care for children and protect them from all forms of violence, abuse, mistreatment and commercial and sexual exploitation.

Every child is entitled to early education in a childhood center until the age of six. It is prohibited to employ children before they reach the age of having completed their primary education, and it is prohibited to employ them in jobs that expose them to risk.

The state shall establish a judicial system for child victims and witnesses. No child may be held criminally responsible or detained except in accordance with the law and the time frame specified therein. Legal aid shall be provided to children, and they shall be detained in appropriate locations separate from adult detention centers.

The state shall work to achieve children’s best interest in all measures taken with regards to them

Article 81: Rights of the disabled
The state shall guarantee the health, economic, social, cultural, entertainment, sporting and education rights of dwarves and people with disabilities. The state shall provide work opportunities for such individuals, and allocate a percentage of these opportunities to them, in addition to equipping public utilities and their surrounding environment. The state guarantees their right to exercise political rights, and their integration with other citizens in order to achieve the principles of equality, justice and equal opportunities

Article 82: Youth
The state guarantees the care of youth and young children, in addition to helping them discover their talents and developing their cultural, scientific, psychological, creative and physical abilities, encouraging them to engage in group and volunteer activity and enabling them to take part in public life

Article 83: The elderly
The state shall guarantee the health, economic, social, cultural and entertainment rights of the elderly, provide them with appropriate pensions to ensure them a decent standard of living, and empower them to participate in public life. The state shall take into account the needs of the elderly while planning public utilities. It also encourages civil society organizations to participate in caring for the elderly.

All the foregoing takes place as organized by law

Article 84: Sports
The state guarantees the right of everyone to practice physical sports. State institutions and society shall work to discover and sponsor gifted athletes and take necessary measures to encourage the practice of sport,.

The law shall regulate the affairs of sports and civil sports bodies in accordance with international standards, and how to settle sporting disputes

Article 85: Right to address public authorities
Each individual has the right to address public authorities in writing and in signature. No address shall be made in the name of groups except for legal persons

Article 86: Duty to safeguard national security
Preservation of national security is a duty, and the commitment of all to uphold such is a national responsibility ensured by law. Defense of the nation and protecting its land is an honor and sacred duty. Military service is mandatory according to the law

Article 87: Citizen participation in public life
The participation of citizens in public life is a national duty. Every citizen has the right to vote, run in elections, and express their opinion in referendums. The law shall regulate the exercise of these rights. Performance of these duties may be exempted in cases specified by the law.

The state shall enter the name of every citizen in the voter registration database without request from the citizen himself, once the citizen meets voting requirements. The state shall also purge this database periodically in accordance with the law. The state guarantees the safety, neutrality and fairness of referendum and election procedures. The use of public funds, government agencies, public facilities, places of worship, business sector establishments and non-governmental organizations and institutions for political purposes and electioneering is forbidden

Article 88: Egyptians living abroad
The state shall protect the interests of Egyptians living abroad, protect them, guarantee their rights and freedoms, enable them to perform their public duties towards the state and society, and engage them in the nation's development.

The law shall regulate their participation in elections and referendums in a way consistent with their particular circumstances, without being restricted by the provisions on voting, counting of ballots and announcing of results set forth in this Constitution. This shall be done with the granting of guarantees that ensure the fairness and neutrality of the election and referendum process

Article 89: Slavery, oppression, trafficking
Slavery and all forms of oppression and forced exploitation against humans are forbidden, as is sex trafficking and other forms of human trafficking, all of which are punishable by law

Article 90: Charitable Endowment
The state shall encourage the charitable endowment system to establish and sponsor scientific, cultural, health, and social institutions and others and to ensure their independence. Its affairs shall be managed in accordance with the conditions set by the person who created the endowment. This will be regulated by law

Article 91: Asylum
The state shall grant political asylum to any foreigner who has been persecuted for defending the interests of peoples, human rights, peace or justice.

Extradition of political refugees is forbidden. All of the above is according to the law

Article 92: Limitations clause
Rights and freedoms of individual citizens may not be suspended or reduced.

No law that regulates the exercise of rights and freedoms may restrict them in such a way as infringes upon their essence and foundation

Article 93: International agreements and conventions
The state is committed to the agreements, covenants, and international conventions of human rights that were ratified by Egypt. They have the force of law after publication in accordance with the specified circumstances

Chapter Four: Rule of Law

Article 94: Rule of law
The rule of law is the basis of governance in the state.

The state is subject to the law, while the independence, immunity and impartiality of the judiciary are essential guarantees for the protection of rights and freedoms

Article 95: Punishment
Penalties are personal. Crimes and penalties may only be based on the law, and penalties may only be inflicted by a judicial ruling. Penalties may only be inflicted for acts committed subsequent to the date on which the law enters into effect

Article 96: Due process
The accused is innocent until proven guilty in a fair court of law, which provides guarantees for him to defend himself.

The law shall regulate the appeal of felony sentences.

The state shall provide protection to the victims, witnesses, accused and informants as necessary and in accordance with the law

Article 97: Right to litigate
Litigation is a safeguarded right guaranteed to all. The state shall bring together the litigating parties, and work towards speedy judgment in cases. It is forbidden to grant any act or administrative decision immunity from judicial oversight. Individuals may only be tried before their natural judge. Extraordinary courts are forbidden

Article 98: Right to defense
The right of defense either in person or by proxy is guaranteed. The independence of lawyers and the protection of their rights are ensured as a guarantee for the right of defense.

For those who are financially incapable, the law guarantees the means to resort to justice and defend their rights

Article 99: Violation of personal freedom
Any assault on the personal freedoms or sanctity of the life of citizens, along with other general rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution and the law, is a crime with no statute of limitations for both civil and criminal proceedings. The injured party may file a criminal suit directly.

The state guarantees just compensation for those who have been assaulted. The National Council for Human Rights shall inform the prosecutor's office of any violation of these rights, and also possesses the right to enter into an ancillary civil lawsuit on the side of the injured party at its request. This is as specified within the law

Article 100: Implementation of court decisions
Court decisions shall be issued and implemented in the name of the people. The state guarantees the means of implementing them as regulated by the law. Refraining from implementing or impeding implementation by the competent public servants is a crime that is punishable by law. The prevailing party in such a case may file a criminal suit directly with the competent court. Upon the request of the prevailing party, the public prosecution must raise criminal proceedings against the public servant who refrained from implementing the decision or impeded it

Chapter Five: The Ruling System

Section One: Legislative Authority (House of Representatives

Article 101: Mandate
The House of Representatives is entrusted with legislative authority, and with approving the general policy of the state, the general plan of economic and social development and the state budget. It exercises oversight over the actions of the executive authority. All the foregoing takes place as set out by the Constitution

Article 102: Composition
The House of Representatives is composed of no less than four hundred and fifty members elected by direct, secret public balloting.

A candidate for the membership of the House must be an Egyptian citizen, enjoying civil and political rights, a holder of at least a certificate of basic education, and no younger than 25 years old on the day that candidacy registration is opened.

Other requirements of nomination, the electoral system, and the division of electoral districts are defined by law, taking into account fair representation of population and governorates and equal representation of voters. The majoritarian system, proportional list, or a mixed system of any ratio may be used.

The President of the Republic may appoint a number of members that does not exceed 5%. The method of their nomination is to be specified by law

Article 103: Nature of Membership
A member of the House of Representatives devotes himself to the tasks of membership and his post is kept in accordance with the law

Article 104: Oath
Prior to the start of his tenure, a member of the House of Representatives takes the following oath: “I swear by Almighty God to loyally uphold the republican system, to respect the Constitution and the law, to fully look after the interests of the people, and to safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of the nation.”

Article 105: Remuneration
Members shall receive a remuneration defined by law. In the event that the remuneration is modified, the modification does not come into effect until the legislative term following the one when it was adopted begins

Article 106: Term
The term of membership in the House of Representatives is five calendar years, commencing from the date of its first session.

Elections for a new House are held during the 60 days preceding the end its term

Article 107: Validity of Membership
The Court of Cassation has jurisdiction over the validity of membership of members of the House of Representatives. Challenges shall be submitted to the Court within a period not exceeding 30 days from date on which the final election results are announced. A verdict must be passed within 60 days from the date on which the challenge is filed.

In the event a membership is deemed invalid, it becomes void from the date on which the verdict is reported to the House

Article 108: Vacancy
If a House of Representatives member’s seat becomes vacant at least six months before the end of his term, the vacant position must be filled in accordance with the law within 60 days from the date on which the vacancy is first reported by the House

Article 109: Restrictions on economic activity, financial disclosure
No House of Representatives member may, throughout his tenure, whether in person or through an intermediary, purchase or rent any piece of state property, or any public-law legal persons, public sector companies, or the public business sector. Nor is he allowed to lease, sell or barter with the state any part of his own property, nor conclude a contract with the state as vendors, suppliers, contractors or others. Any such actions shall be deemed void.

A member must submit a financial disclosure upon taking office, upon leaving it and at the end of every year.

If, because of or in relation to his membership, he should receive cash or in-kind gifts, ownership thereof reverts to the state treasury.

The foregoing is organized by law

Article 110: Revoking membership
The membership of any member may only be revoked if a member has lost trust, status or any of the conditions for membership on the basis of which he was elected, or if the duties of membership have been violated.

The decision to revoke membership is issued by a two-thirds majority of the members of the House of Representatives

Article 111: Resignation of members
The House of Representatives accepts the resignation of its members, which must be submitted in writing, and to be accepted must not be submitted after the House has started procedures to revoke membership against the resigning member

Article 112: Opinions of members
A House of Representatives member cannot be held accountable for any opinions he expresses relating to his work in the House or its committees

Article 113: Criminal action against members
It is prohibited, except in cases of in flagrante delicto, to take criminal action, according to articles of felonies and misdemeanors, against a member without prior permission from the House of Representatives. If not in session, permission must be granted by the House of Representatives’ Bureau, and the House must be notified of the decision as soon as it is in session.

In all cases, if a request for permission to take legal action against a member does not receive a response within 30 days, the permission is to be considered granted

Article 114: Seat
The seat of the House of Representatives is in Cairo.

However, in exceptional circumstances, the House may hold meetings elsewhere, at the request of the President of the Republic or one-third of the House’s members.

Any meetings of the House that do not conform with the foregoing are invalid, including any decisions that may have been passed

Article 115: Ordinary session
The President of the Republic convokes the House of Representatives for its ordinary annual session before the first Thursday of October. If such convocation is not made, the House is required by the Constitution to meet on said day.

The ordinary session continues for at least nine months. The President of the Republic brings the annual session to a close with the approval of the House only after the state’s general budget has been adopted

Article 116: Extraordinary session
It is possible for the House of Representatives to be called to an extraordinary meeting to look into an urgent matter based on a request by the President of the Republic, or upon a request signed by at least 10 members from the House

Article 117: Speaker, deputy speakers
The House of Representatives elects, in the first meeting of its regular annual session, a speaker and two deputy speakers for the full legislative term. If either seat becomes vacant, the House elects a replacement. The House’s rules of procedure set out the rules and procedures of election. If any of them violate the commitments of his post, one-third of the members of the House may make a request to relieve him of his post. The decision is issued by a two-thirds majority of members.

In all cases, neither the speaker nor any of the two deputies may be elected for more than two consecutive legislative terms

Article 118: Rules of procedure
The House of Representatives establishes its own rules of procedure regulating its work, the manner of practicing its functions, and maintaining order therein. The rules of procedure are issued by virtue of a law

Article 119: Internal order
The House of Representatives maintains its internal order, a responsibility that is assumed by the Speaker of the House

Article 120: Public sessions
The sessions of the House of Representatives are held in public.

The House may hold a closed session based on a request by the President of the Republic, the Speaker of the House, or at least 20 of its members. The House will decide by majority whether the debate in question takes place in a public or a closed session

Article 121: Quorum and voting
The meetings of the House and the resolutions it passes are not considered valid unless attended by the majority of its members.

In cases other than those requiring a special majority, resolutions are adopted based on an absolute majority of the members present. In case of a tie of vote, the matter in deliberation is considered rejected.

Laws are approved by an absolute majority of the attendees, provided that they constitute no less than one third of the members of the House.

Laws complementing the Constitution are issued based on the approval of two thirds of the members of the House. Laws regulating the presidential, parliamentary, and local elections, political parties, the judiciary, and judicial bodies, and those organizing the rights and duties stipulated in the Constitution are deemed complementary to it

Article 122: Proposing bills
The President of the Republic, the Cabinet, and every member of the House of Representatives has the right to propose laws.

Every bill presented by the government or by one-tenth of the members of the House is referred to a specialized committee of the House to study and submit a report about it to the House. The committee may seek the opinion of experts on the matter.

No bill presented by a member can be referred to the special committee before being permitted by the proposals committee and approved by the House. If the proposals committee refuses a bill, it must give a reason for its decision.

Any bill or proposed law rejected by the House may not be presented again during the same legislative term

Article 123: Presidential veto
The President of the Republic has the right to issue or object to laws.

If the President of the Republic objects to a draft law approved by the House of Representatives, it must be referred back to the House within 30 days of the House's being notified thereof. If the draft law is not referred back to the House within this period, it is considered a law and is issued.

If it is referred back to the House within the aforementioned period, and is approved again by a majority of two-thirds of its members, it is considered a law and is issued

Article 124: State budget
The state budget includes all of its revenue and expenditure without exception. The draft budget is submitted to the House of Representatives at least 90 days before the beginning of the fiscal year. It is not considered in effect unless approved thereby, and it is put to vote on a chapter-by-chapter basis.

The House may modify the expenditures in the draft budget law, except those proposed to honor a specific state liability.

Should the modification result in an increase in total expenditure, the House shall reach an agreement with the government on the means to secure revenue resources to achieve a balance between them. The budget is issued in a law, which may include modification to any existing law to the extent necessary to realize such balance.

In all cases, the budget law may not include any text that incurs new burdens on citizens.

The specifics of the fiscal year, the method of budget preparation, the provisions of the budgets of institutions, public bodies, and their accounts are defined by law.

The approval of the House of Representatives is necessary for the transfer of any funds from one chapter of the budget to another, as well as for any expenditure not included therein or in excess of its estimates. The approval is issued in a law

Article 125: Final account
The final account of the state budget is submitted to the House of Representatives within a period not exceeding 6 months from the end of the fiscal year. The annual report of the Central Auditing Organization and the latter’s observations on the final account must be submitted therewith.

The final account of the state budget is put to vote on a chapter-by-chapter basis and is issued by law.

The House has the right to request from the Central Auditing Organization any additional data or other reports

Article 126: Collection and disbursement of public funds
The basic rules for collection of public funds and the procedure for their disbursement are regulated by the law

Article 127: Executive authority
The executive authority may not contract a loan, obtain funding, or commit itself to a project that is not listed in the approved state budget entailing expenditure from the state treasury for a subsequent period, except with the approval of the House of Representatives

Article 128: Salaries, pensions, indemnities, subsidies, and bonuses
The rules governing salaries, pensions, indemnities, subsidies, and bonuses taken from the state treasury are regulated by law, as are the cases for exception from such rules, and the authorities in charge of their application

Article 129: Submitting questions
Every member of the House of Representatives may submit questions to the Prime Minister, to one of his deputies, to a minister, or their deputies on any matter that falls under their mandate. It is obligatory for them to respond to these questions during the same term.

The member may withdraw his question at any time. A question may not be converted into an interpellation in the same session

Article 130: Addressing interrogations
Every member of the House of Representatives may address interpellations to the Prime Minister, to the Prime Minister’s deputies, to ministers, or to their deputies in relation to matters that fall under their mandate.

Debate on an interpellation takes place at least seven days and no more than 60 days after its submission, except in cases of urgency as decided by the House and with the government’s consent

Article 131: Withdrawal of confidence
The House of Representatives may decide to withdraw its confidence from the Prime Minister, a deputy of the Prime Minister, ministers, or their deputies.

A motion of no confidence may be submitted only after an interpellation, upon proposal by at least one- tenth of the members of the House of Representatives. The House issues its decision after debating the interpellation. A withdrawal of confidence requires a majority of members.

In all cases, a no confidence motion may not be made in connection with an issue that has already been decided upon in the same term.

If the House decides to withdraw confidence from the Prime Minister, one of his deputies, a minister, or their deputies and the government has announced its solidarity with him before the vote, then that government is obliged to offer its resignation. If the no confidence resolution concerns a certain member of the government, that member is obliged to resign his office

Article 132: Discussion of public issues
Any 20 members of the House of Representatives at least may request the discussion of a public issue to obtain clarification on the government’s policy in its regard

Article 133: Discussion of public issues by members
Any member of the House of Representatives may propose to the Prime Minister, one of his deputies, any minister, or their deputies the discussion of a public issue

Article 134: Urgent briefing or statements
Every member of the House of Representatives may request an urgent briefing or a statement from the Prime Minister, the Prime Minister’s deputies, any minister, or his deputies in relation to urgent matters of public importance

Article 135: Fact-finding
The House of Representatives may form a special committee or entrust one of its existing committees to examine a public matter, or the activities of any administrative department, public agency or public enterprise, for the purpose of fact-finding regarding a specific issue and informing the House of Representatives of the actual financial, administrative or economic status, for conducting investigations into a past activity, or for any other purpose; the House decides on the appropriate course of action.

In order to carry out its mission, such a committee would be entitled to collect the evidence it deems necessary and to summon individuals to give statements. All bodies shall respond to the committee's requests and place at its disposal all the documents, evidence, or anything otherwise required.

In all cases, every member of the House of Representatives is entitled to obtain any data or information pertaining to undertaking his work at the House from the executive authority

Article 136: Attendance of sessions by the prime minister, his deputies, ministers and their deputies
The Prime Minister, his deputies, ministers and their deputies may attend the sessions of either the House of Representatives or of any of their committees. Their attendance is obligatory if requested by the House. They may be assisted by high-ranking officials of their choice.

They are to be heard whenever they request to speak. They must answer questions pertaining to issues that are in discussion, but cannot vote when votes are taken

Article 137: Dissolution of the House of Representatives
The President of the Republic may not dissolve the House of Representatives except when necessary by a causal decision and following a public referendum. The House of Representatives may not be dissolved for the same cause for which the previous House was dissolved.

The President of the Republic must issue a decision to suspend parliamentary sessions and hold a referendum on dissolution within no more than 20 days. If voters agree by a majority of valid votes, the President of the Republic issues the decision of dissolution, and calls for early parliamentary elections to take place within no more than 30 days from the date of the decision's issuance. The new House convenes within the 10 days following the announcement of the referendum results

Article 138: Submitting proposals and complaints
Citizens may submit written proposals to the House of Representatives regarding public issues. Citizens may also submit complaints to the House of Representatives to be referred to the relevant ministers. If the House requests it, the minister must provide clarifications, and the citizen who submitted the complaint is to be informed of the result

Section Two: Executive Authority

Subsection One: The President of the Republic

Article 139: Mandate
The President of the Republic is the head of state and head of the executive branch of government. He defends the interests of the people, safeguards the independence, territorial integrity and safety of the nation, and abides by the provisions of the Constitution and carries out his responsibilities in the manner prescribed therein

Article 140: Term, election, prohibition on partisan positions
The President of the Republic is elected for a period of four calendar years, commencing on the day the term of his predecessor ends. The President may only be reelected once.

The procedures for electing the President of the Republic begin at least 120 days before the end of the presidential term. The result is to be announced at least 30 days before the end of term.

The President of the Republic may not hold any partisan position for the duration of the presidency

Article 141: Conditions for candidacy
A presidential candidate must be an Egyptian born to Egyptian parents, and neither he, his parents or his spouse may have held other citizenship. He must have civil and political rights, must have performed the military service or have been exempted therefrom by law, and cannot be younger than 40 years on the day that candidacy registration is opened. Other requirements for candidacy are set out by law

Article 142: Conditions for candidacy
To be accepted as a candidate for the presidency, candidates must receive the recommendation of at least 20 elected members of the House of Representatives, or endorsements from at least 25,000 citizens who have the right to vote, in at least 15 governorates, with a minimum of 1,000 endorsements from each governorate.

In all cases, no one can endorse more than one candidate. This is organized by law

Article 143: Election
The President of the Republic is elected by direct secret ballot, with an absolute majority of valid votes. The procedures for electing the President of the Republic are regulated by law

Article 144: Oath
Before assuming the functions of the presidential office, the President of the Republic takes the following oath before the House of Representatives: “I swear by Almighty God to loyally uphold the republican system, to respect the Constitution and the law, to fully uphold the interests of the people and to safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of the nation.”

In case of the absence of the House of Representatives, the oath is to be taken before the General Assembly of the Supreme Constitutional Court

Article 145: Remuneration
The salary of the President of the Republic is stipulated by law. The President cannot receive any other salary or remuneration. No modification to the salary may come into effect during the presidential term during which it is approved. The president may not engage throughout the presidential term, whether in person or through an intermediary, in an independent profession or commercial, financial or industrial activity, nor is the President allowed to buy or rent any piece of state property, public-law legal persons or public sector companies, nor lease, sell or barter with the state any part of his own property, nor conclude a contract with the state as vendor, supplier, contractor or other as set out by law. Any such actions shall be considered null and void.

The President must submit a financial disclosure upon taking office, upon leaving it, and at the end of each year. The disclosure is to be published in the Official Gazette.

Throughout the presidential term, the President of the Republic may not award himself any orders, badges or medals.

If because of or in relation to the presidential post, the President receives, in person or through an intermediary, cash or in-kind gifts, ownership thereof reverts to the state treasury

Article 146: Government formation
The President of the Republic assigns a Prime Minister to form the government and present his program to the House of Representatives. If his government does not obtain the confidence of the majority of the members of the House of Representatives within no more 30 days, the President appoints a Prime Minister based on the nomination of the party or the coalition that holds a plurality of seats in the House of Representatives. If his government fails to win the confidence of the majority of the members of the House of Representatives within 30 days, the House is deemed dissolved, and the President of the Republic calls for the elections of a new House of Representatives within 60 days from the date the dissolution is announced.

In all cases, the sum of the periods set forth in this Article shall not exceed 60 days.

In the event that the House of Representatives is dissolved, the Prime Minister presents the government and its program to the new House of Representatives at its first session.

In the event that the government is chosen from the party or the coalition that holds a plurality of seats at the House of Representatives, the President of the Republic may, in consultation with the Prime Minister, choose the Ministers of Justice, Interior, and Defense

Article 147: Governmental exemption
The President of the Republic may exempt the government from carrying out its tasks, provided that the House of Representatives approves of such with a majority.

The President of the Republic may conduct a cabinet reshuffle after consultation with the Prime Minister and the approval of the House of Representatives with an absolute majority of attendees that is no less than one third of its members

Article 148: Delegation of authorities
The President of the Republic may delegate some of his authorities to the Prime Minister, his deputies, the ministers, or the governors. None of them may delegate others. This will be organized by law

Article 149: Convening of government
The President of the Republic may call the government to meeting to discuss important matters, and presides over the meetings that he attends

Article 150: The state’s general policy
The President of the Republic, jointly with the Cabinet, sets the general policy of the state and oversees its implementation as set out by the Constitution.

The President of the Republic may deliver a statement on the state’s general policy before the House of Representatives at the opening of its regular session.

The President may make other statements or convey other messages to the House

Article 151: Foreign relations
The President of the Republic represents the state in foreign relations and concludes treaties and ratifies them after the approval of the House of Representatives. They shall acquire the force of law upon promulgation in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

With regards to any treaty of peace and alliance, and treaties related to the rights of sovereignty, voters must be called for a referendum, and they are not to be ratified before the announcement of their approval in the referendum.

In all cases, no treaty may be concluded which is contrary to the provisions of the Constitution or which leads to concession of state territories

Article 152: The president and the armed forces
The President of the Republic is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. The President cannot declare war, or send the armed forces to combat outside state territory, except after consultation with the National Defense Council and the approval of the House of Representatives with a two-thirds majority of its members.

If the House of Representatives is dissolved, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) must be consulted and the approval of the Cabinet and National Defense Council must be obtained

Article 153: Appointment of civil and military personnel and diplomats
The President of the Republic appoints civil and military personnel and diplomatic representatives and dismisses them, and confirms political representatives to foreign countries and organizations in accordance with the law

Article 154: State of emergency
The President of the Republic declares, after consultation with the Cabinet, a state of emergency in the manner regulated by law. Such proclamation must be submitted to the House of Representatives within the following seven days to consider it.

If the declaration takes place when the House of Representatives is not in regular session, a session is called immediately in order to consider the declaration.

In all cases, the declaration of a state of emergency must be approved by a majority of members of the House of Representatives. The declaration is for a specified period not exceeding three months, which can only be extended by another similar period upon the approval of two-thirds of House members. In the event the House of Representatives is dissolved, the matter is submitted to the new House in its first session.

The House of Representatives cannot be dissolved while a state of emergency is in force

Article 155: Pardon and amnesty
The President of the Republic may issue a pardon or mitigate a sentence after consulting with the Cabinet.

General amnesty may only be granted in a law, which is ratified by a majority of members of the House of Representatives

Article 156: Decrees that have the force of law
In the event that the House of Representatives is not in session, and where there is a requirement for urgent measures that cannot be delayed, the President of the Republic convenes the House for an emergency session to present the matter to it. In absence of the House of Representatives, the President of the Republic may issue decrees that have the force of law, provided that these decrees are then presented to the House of Representatives, discussed and approved within 15 days from the date the new House convenes. If such decrees are not presented to the House and discussed, or if they are presented but not approved, their legality is revoked retroactively, without the need to issue a decision to that effect, unless the House affirms their validity for the previous period, or chooses to settle the consequent effects

Article 157: Referendum
The President of the Republic may call for a referendum on issues relating to the supreme interests of the country without prejudice to the provisions of the Constitution.

If the call for a referendum relates to more than one issue, the people must vote on each individual issue

Article 158: Resignation
The President of the Republic may submit his resignation to the House of Representatives. If the House is dissolved, he submits it to the General Assembly of the Supreme Constitutional Court

Article 159: Prosecution
A charge of violating the provisions of the Constitution, high treason or any other felony against the President of the Republic is to be based on a motion signed by at least a majority of the members of the House of Representatives. An impeachment is to be issued only by a two-thirds majority of the members of the House of Representatives and after an investigation to be carried out by the Prosecutor General. If there is an impediment, he is to be replaced by one of his assistants.

As soon as an impeachment decision has been issued, the President of the Republic ceases all work; this is treated as a temporary impediment preventing the President from carrying out presidential duties until a verdict is reached in the case.

The President of the Republic is tried before a special court headed by the president of the Supreme Judicial Council, and with the membership of the most senior deputy of the president of the Supreme Constitutional Court, the most senior deputy of the president of the State Council, and the two most senior presidents of the Court of Appeals; the prosecution to be carried out before such court by the Prosecutor General. If an impediment exists for any of the foregoing individuals, they are replaced by order of seniority. The court verdicts are irrevocable and not subject to challenge.

The law organizes the investigation and the trial procedures. In the case of conviction, the President of the Republic is relieved of his post, without prejudice to other penalties

Article 160: Vacancy
If on account of a temporary impediment, the President of the Republic is rendered unable to carry out the presidential functions, the Prime Minister acts in his place.

If the Presidential office becomes vacant, due to resignation, death, permanent disability to work or any other reason, the House of Representatives announces the vacancy of the office. If the vacancy occurs for any other reason, the House announces it with a two-thirds majority. The House notifies the National Elections Commission, the Speaker of the House of Representatives temporarily assumes presidential powers.

In the event the House of Representatives is dissolved, the General Assembly of the Supreme Constitutional Court and its chairman replace the House of Representatives and its Speaker.

In all cases, a new president must be elected during a period not exceeding 90 days from the date the office becomes vacant. In such a case, the presidential term commences as of the date the result of elections is announced.

The interim President is not allowed to run for this office, request any amendment to the Constitution, dissolve the House of Representatives or dismiss the government

Article 161: Withdrawal of confidence
The House of Representatives may propose to withdraw confidence from the President of the Republic and hold early presidential elections upon a causal motion signed by at least a majority of the members of the House of Representatives and the approval of two-thirds of its members. The motion may only be submitted once for the same cause during the presidential term.

Upon the approval of the proposal to withdraw confidence, the matter of withdrawing confidence from the President of the Republic and holding early presidential elections is to be put to public referendum by the Prime Minister. If the majority approves the decision to withdraw confidence, the President of the Republic is to be relieved from his post, the office of the President of the Republic is to be deemed vacant, and early presidential elections are to be held within 60 days from the date the referendum results are announced. If the result of the referendum is refusal, the House of Representatives is to be deemed dissolved, and the President of the Republic is to call for electing a new House of Representatives within 30 days of the date of dissolution

Article 162: Priority of presidential elections
If the vacancy of the presidential office occurs at the same time that a referendum or the election of the House of Representatives is being held, the presidential elections are given priority. The existing parliament continues in place until the completion of the presidential elections

Subsection Two: The Government

Article 163: Composition, Prime Minister’s mandate
The government is the supreme executive and administrative body of the state and it consists of the Prime Minister, the Prime Minister’s deputies, the ministers, and their deputies.

The Prime Minister heads the government, oversees its work, and directs it in the performance of its functions

Article 164: Conditions for candidacy
A person appointed to the position of Prime Minister or any other position in the government must be an Egyptian citizen of Egyptian parents, and he and his spouse may not have held the citizenship of any other country, must enjoy civil and political rights, must have performed the military service or have been exempted therefrom, and must be at least 35 years old at the time of appointment.

Anyone appointed as a member of the government is required to be an Egyptian, enjoying his civil and political rights, have performed the military service or have been exempted therefrom, and to be at least 30 years old at the time of appointment.

It is prohibited to hold a position in the government in addition to membership in the House of Representatives. If a member of the House is appointed to the government, his place in the House becomes vacant as of the date of this appointment

Article 165: Oath
Before assuming their duties, the Prime Minister and members of government take the following oath before the President of the Republic: “I swear by Almighty God to loyally uphold the republican system, to respect the Constitution and the law, to fully uphold the interests of the people and to safeguard the independence, territorial integrity and safety of the nation.”

Article 166: Remuneration
The salary of the Prime Minister and members of government are stipulated by law. They cannot receive any other salary or remuneration, nor engage throughout the term of their posts, whether in person or through an intermediary, in independent professions, or commercial, financial or industrial activities. Nor are they allowed to buy or rent any piece of state property, public-law legal persons or public sector companies, nor lease, sell or barter any of their property with the state, nor conclude a contract with the state as vendors, suppliers, contractors or others as set out by law. Any such actions are deemed null and void.

The Prime Minister and members of government must submit a financial disclosure upon taking office, upon leaving it and at the end of each year. The disclosure is to be published in the Official Gazette.

If, because of or in relation to their posts, they should receive cash or in-kind gifts, ownership thereof reverts to the state treasury. The foregoing is organized by law

Article 167: Governmental mandate
The government exercises the following functions in particular:

1. Collaborate with the President of the Republic in setting the public policy of the state and overseeing its implementation.

2. Maintain the security of the nation, and protect the rights of citizens and the interests of the state.

3. Direct, coordinate and follow up on the work of the ministries and their affiliated public bodies and organizations.

4. Prepare draft laws and decrees.

5. Issue administrative decisions in accordance with the law, and monitor their implementation.

6. Prepare the draft general plan of the state.

7. Prepare the draft annual state budget law.

8. Contract and grant loans in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

9. Implement laws.

Article 168: Ministerial mandate
The minister draws up his ministry’s general policy, supervises its implementation and offers guidance and oversight, in collaboration with the competent bodies and within the framework of the state’s public policy.

Higher management posts in every ministry include a permanent undersecretary to ensure achieving institutional stability and increasing the level of efficiency in the implementation of its policy

Article 169: Statements before the House of Representatives
A member of government may make a statement before the House of Representatives, or one of its committees, concerning any matters within their mandate.

The House or the committee may discuss such a statement and convey its position regarding it

Article 170: Regulations to enforce laws
The Prime Minister issues necessary regulations for the enforcement of laws, in such a manner that does not involve any disruption, modification, or exemption from their enforcement, and has the right to vest others with the authority to issue them, unless the law designates who should issue the necessary regulations for its own implementation

Article 171: Regulations to create and organize public utilities
The Prime Minister issues the regulations necessary for the creation and organization of public utilities and interests upon the approval of the government

Article 172: Disciplinary regulations
The Prime Minister issues disciplinary regulations upon the approval of the government

Article 173: Investigation and trial
The Prime Minister and members of the government are subject to the general rules organizing investigation and trial procedures, if they commit crimes while exercising the functions of their posts or because of them. The end of their term of service does not preclude the start or resumption of prosecution.

In case of a charge of high treason against any member of the government, the provisions stipulated in article 159 of the Constitution apply

Article 174: Resignation
If the Prime Minister offers his resignation, the letter of resignation must be presented to the President of the Republic. If a minister offers his resignation, it must be presented to the Prime Minister

Subsection Three: Local Administration

Article 175: Administrative units
The state is divided into local administrative units that have legal personality. They include governorates, cities and villages. Other administrative units that have legal personality may be established, if the public interest requires such.

When establishing or abolishing local units or amending their boundaries, economic and social conditions shall be taken into account. The foregoing is organized by law

Article 176: Empowerment of administrative units
The state ensures support for administrative, financial, and economic decentralization. The law organizes empowering administrative units in providing, improving, and managing public utilities well, and defines the timeline for transferring powers and budgets to the local administration units

Article 177: Needs of local units
The state guarantees that it will satisfy the local units’ needs in terms of scientific, technical, administrative and financial assistance, and ensures the equitable distribution of facilities, services and resources, and works to bring development levels in these units to a common standard and achieve social justice between these units. This will be organized by law

Article 178: Finances of local units
Local units have independent financial budgets.

Local units’ resources include, in addition to the resources allocated to them by the state, original and additional taxes and fees of a local nature. The unit follows the same rules and procedures in the collection of public funds as followed by the state.

The foregoing is regulated by law

Article 179: Selection of governors and heads of local units
The law regulates the manner in which governors and heads of other local administrative units are selected, and defines their mandate

Article 180: Election of local councils
Every local unit elects a local council by direct, secret ballot for a term of four years. A candidate must be no younger than 21 years old. The law regulates other conditions for candidacy and procedures of election, provided that one quarter of the seats are allocated to youth under 35 years old, one quarter is allocated for women, workers and farmers are represented by no less than 50 percent of the total number of seats, and these percentages include a proper representation of Christians and people with disability.

Local councils are responsible for developing and implementing the development plan, monitoring the activity’s different aspects, exercising the tools of monitoring the executive authority such as proposals, and submitting questions, briefing motions, interpellations and others, and withdrawing confidence from the heads of local units, in the manner organized by law.

The law defines the mandate of other local councils, their financial sources, guarantees of its members, and their independence

Article 181: Local council decisions
Local council decisions that are issued within the council’s mandate are final. They are not subject to interference from the executive authority, except to prevent the council from overstepping these limits, or causing damage to the public interest or the interests of other local councils.

Any dispute over the jurisdiction of these local councils in villages, centers or towns is settled by the governorate-level local council. Disputes over the jurisdiction of governorate-level local councils are dealt with as a matter of urgency by the General Assembly of the Legal Opinion and Legislation Departments of the State Council. The foregoing is organized by law

Article 182: Budgets and final accounts of local councils
Every local council is in charge of its own budget and final accounts, in the manner organized by law

Article 183: Dissolution of local councils
It is prohibited to dissolve local councils as part of a comprehensive administrative procedure.

The manner to dissolve and reelect them is organized by law

Section Three: The Judicial Authority

Subsection One: General Provisions

Article 184: The judiciary
The judiciary is independent. It is vested in the courts of justice of different types and degrees, which issue their judgments in accordance with the law. Its powers are defined by law. Interference in judicial affairs or in proceedings is a crime to which no statute of limitations may be applied

Article 185: Judicial bodies
All judicial bodies administer their own affairs. Each has an independent budget, whose items are all discussed by the House of Representatives. After approving each budget, it is incorporated in the state budget as a single figure, and their opinion is consulted on the draft laws governing their affairs

Article 186: Judicial independence
Judges are independent, cannot be dismissed, are subject to no other authority but the law, and are equal in rights and duties. The conditions and procedures for their appointment, secondment, delegation and retirement are regulated by the law. It also regulates their disciplinary accountability

They may not be fully or partly delegated except to bodies and to perform tasks that are identified by law, provided that all the foregoing maintains the independence and impartiality of the judiciary and judges and prevents conflicts of interest. The rights, duties and guarantees granted to them are specified by law

Article 187: Public sessions
Court sessions are public, unless, for reasons of public order or morals, the court deems them confidential. In all cases, the verdict is given in an open session

Subsection Two: The Judiciary and Public Prosecution

Article 188: Mandate
The judiciary adjudicates all disputes and crimes except for matters over which another judicial body is competent. Only the judiciary settles any disputes relating to the affairs of its members, and its affairs are managed by a higher council whose structure and mandate are organized by law

Article 189: Public prosecution
The public prosecution is an integral part of the judiciary. It is responsible for investigating, pressing charges and prosecuting all criminal cases except what is exempted by law. The law establishes the public prosecution’s other competencies.

Public prosecution is carried out by a Prosecutor General who is selected by the Supreme Judicial Council from among the Deputies to the President of the Court of Cassation, the Presidents of the Court of Appeals or the Assistant Prosecutor Generals, by virtue of a presidential decree for a period of four years, or for the period remaining until retirement age, whichever comes first, and only once during a judge’s career

Subsection Three: The State Council

Article 190: Mandate
The State Council is an independent judicial body that is exclusively competent to adjudicate in administrative disputes, disciplinary cases and appeals, and disputes pertaining to its decisions. It also solely competent to issue opinions on the legal issues of bodies to be determined by law, review and draft bills and resolutions of a legislative character, and review draft contracts to which the state or any public entity is a party. Other competencies are to be determined by law

Section Four: The Supreme Constitutional Court

Article 191: Independence, seat, budget, General Assembly
The Supreme Constitutional Court is an independent judicial body. It is based in Cairo. If necessary, it may convene anywhere else in the country with the approval of the Court’s General Assembly. It has an independent budget whose items are all discussed by the House of Representatives. After it is approved, it is incorporated in the state budget as a single figure. The Court’s General Assembly is responsible for governing the Court’s affairs and is consulted on the draft laws related to the Court’s affairs

Article 192: Jurisdiction
The Supreme Constitutional Court is exclusively competent to decide on the constitutionality of laws and regulations, interpret legislative texts, and adjudicate in disputes pertaining to the affairs of its members, in disputes between judicial bodies and entities that have judicial mandate, in disputes pertaining to the implementation of two final contradictory rulings, one of which is issued by any judicial body or an agency with judicial mandate and the other issued by another body, and in disputes pertaining to the implementation of its rulings and decisions.

The law defines the Court’s other competencies and regulates the procedures that are to be followed before the Court

Article 193: Composition
The Court is made up of a president and a sufficient number of deputies to the president.

The Commissioners Authority of the Supreme Constitutional Court is composed of a president and a sufficient number of presidents in the authority, advisors and assistant advisors.

The General Assembly chooses the Court’s President from among the most senior three vice-presidents of the court. It also chooses the vice-presidents and the members of its Commissioners Authority, who are appointed by a decree from the President of the Republic. The foregoing takes place in the manner defined by the law

Article 194: President and vice-presidents
The President and the vice-presidents of the Supreme Constitutional Court, and the head and members of its Commissioners Authority are independent, cannot be dismissed, and are subject to no other authority but the law. The law sets out the conditions that they must meet. The Court is responsible for their disciplinary accountability as set out by law. They are entitled to all the rights, duties and guarantees granted to other members of the judiciary

Article 195: Publication of rulings and decisions
The Official Gazette publishes the rulings and decisions issued by the Supreme Constitutional Court. They are binding to everyone and to all state authorities. They enjoy absolute authenticity in their regard.

The effects of a decision that a legislative text is unconstitutional are organized by law

Section Five: Judicial Bodies

Article 196: State Cases Authority
The State Cases Authority is an independent judicial body. It undertakes the legal representation of the state in lawsuits and disputes to which the state is party. It may propose settling of disputes at any stage of litigation in accordance with the law. It also conducts technical supervision the cases undertaken by the departments of legal affairs at the state’s administrative body. It authors the draft contracts referred to it by administrative bodies and to which the state is party. The foregoing is organized by law.

Its other competencies are defined by law. Its members have all of the securities, rights and duties assigned to other members of the judiciary. Their disciplinary accountability is organized by law

Article 197: Administrative Prosecution
The Administrative Prosecution is an independent judicial body. It investigates financial and administrative irregularities, and those referred to it. Regarding these irregularities, it has the authorities vested in the administration body to inflict disciplinary penalties. Challenging its decisions takes place before the competent disciplinary court at the State Council. It also initiates and conducts proceedings and disciplinary appeals before the State Council courts in accordance with the law. All the foregoing is organized by law.

Other competencies are defined by law. Its members share securities, rights and duties assigned to other members of the judiciary. Their disciplinary accountability is organized by law

Section Six: The Legal Profession

Article 198: Guarantees, prohibition against arrest
The legal profession is an independent profession. It participates with the judiciary in achieving justice and the rule of law, and ensuring the right to defense. It is practiced independently by lawyers, and lawyers of public sector and public business sector agencies and companies. While undertaking the right of defense before courts, all lawyers enjoy the guarantees and protection granted to them by law, which also apply to them before investigation and trial authorities. Except in cases of flagrante delicto, arresting or detaining lawyers while exercising their right of defense is prohibited. The foregoing is organized by law

Section Seven: Aides to the Judiciary

Article 199: Judicial experts, forensic medicine experts, and members of the notary public
Judicial experts, forensic medicine experts, and notary publics undertake their work independently. The law ensures the necessary guarantees and protection for them to perform their work, as organized by law

Section Eight: The Armed Forces and the Police Force

Subsection One: The Armed Forces

Article 200: Mandate
The armed forces belong to the people. Their duty is to protect the country, and preserve its security and territories. The state is exclusively mandated to establish armed forces. No individual, entity, organization or group is allowed to create military or para-military structures, groups or organizations.

The armed forces have a Supreme Council as regulated by law

Article 201: Commander in Chief of the armed forces
The Minister of Defense is the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces, appointed from among its officers

Article 202: Public mobilization, administrative disputes
The law regulates public mobilization and defines the conditions of service, promotion and retirement in the armed forces.

The judicial committees for officers and personnel of the armed forces are exclusively competent for adjudicating in all administrative disputes pertaining to decisions affecting them. The law regulates the rules and procedures for challenging the decisions of these committees

Subsection Two: The National Defense Council

Article 203: Composition, mandate
A National Defense Council is established, presided over by the President of the Republic and including in its membership the Prime Minister, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Minister of Defense, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of Finance, the Minister of Interior, the Chief of the General Intelligence Service, the Chief of Staff of the armed forces, the Commanders of the Navy, the Air Forces and Air Defense, the Chief of Operations for the armed forces and the Head of Military Intelligence.

The Council is responsible for looking into matters pertaining to the methods of ensuring the safety and security of the country, for discussing the armed forces’ budget, which is incorporated as a single figure in the state budget. Its opinion must be sought in relation to draft laws on the armed forces.

Its other competencies are defined by law.

When discussing the budget, the head of the financial affairs department of the armed forces and the heads of the Planning and Budgeting Committee and the National Security Committee at the House of Representatives shall be included

The President of the Republic may invite whoever is seen as having relevant expertise to attend the Council’s meetings without having their votes counted

Subsection Three: The Military Judiciary

Article 204: Definition, mandate, military trial of civilians
The Military Judiciary is an independent judiciary that adjudicates exclusively in all crimes related to the armed forces, its officers, personnel, and their equals, and in the crimes committed by general intelligence personnel during and because of the service.

Civilians cannot stand trial before military courts except for crimes that represent a direct assault against military facilities, military barracks, or whatever falls under their authority; stipulated military or border zones; its equipment, vehicles, weapons, ammunition, documents, military secrets, public funds or military factories; crimes related to conscription; or crimes that represent a direct assault against its officers or personnel because of the performance of their duties.

The law defines such crimes and determines the other competencies of the Military Judiciary.

Members of the Military Judiciary are autonomous and cannot be dismissed. They share the securities, rights and duties stipulated for members of other judiciaries

Subsection Four: The National Security Council

Article 205: Composition, mandate
The National Security Council is established. It is presided over by the President of the Republic and includes in its membership the Prime Minister, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Minister of Defense, the Minister of Interior, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of Finance, the Minister of Justice, the Minister of Health, the Chief of the General Intelligence Services, and the Heads of the Committees of Defense and National Security in the House of Representatives.

The Council adopts strategies for establishing security in the country and facing disasters and crises of all kinds, takes necessary measures to contain them, identifies sources of threat to Egyptian national security, whether at home or abroad, and undertakes necessary actions to address them on the official and popular levels.

The Council may invite whoever is seen as being of relevant expertise to attend its meetings without having their votes counted.

Other competencies and regulations are defined by law

Subsection Five: The Police Force

Article 206: Mandate
The police force is a statutory civil body that is in the service of the people. Its loyalty is to the people. It ensures safety and security to citizens, preserves public order and morality. It is committed to undertake the duties imposed on it by the Constitution and the law, and to respect human rights and basic rights. The state guarantees that members of the police force perform their duties. Guarantees for that are organized by law

Article 207: Supreme Police Council
The Supreme Police Council is composed from among the most senior officers of the police force and the head of the Legal Opinion Department at the State Council. The Council assists the Minister of Interior in organizing the police force and managing the affairs of its members. Its other competences are identified by law. It must be consulted in any laws pertaining to it

Section Nine: The National Elections Commission

Article 208: Mandate
The National Elections Commission is exclusively responsible for managing referenda and presidential, parliamentary and local elections, which includes the preparation and update of a database of voters, proposal and division of constituencies, setting regulations for and overseeing electoral campaigns, funding, electoral expenditure declaration thereof, and managing the procedures for out-of-country voting by expatriate Egyptians, and other procedures, up to the announcements of results.

The foregoing is regulated by law

Article 209: Structure, composition
The National Elections Commission is administered by a board made up of 10 members selected equally from among the vice-presidents of the Court of Cassation, the presidents of the Courts of Appeal, the vice-president of the State Council, the State Affairs and Administrative Prosecution, who are to be selected by the Supreme Judicial Council and special councils of the aforementioned judicial bodies depending on the circumstances, provided that they are not members in them. They are appointed by decree from the President of the Republic. They are selected to exclusively work at the Commission for one term of at least six years. The Commission’s presidency belongs to its most senior member from the Court of Cassation.

Half of the members of the council are replaced every three years.

The Commission may refer to public figures, specialists, and those deemed to have relevant expertise in the field of elections. They do not have the right to vote.

The Commission has a permanent executive body. The law determines its composition, system of operation, and the rights, duties and securities of its members to achieve their neutrality, independence and integrity

Article 210: Administering voting and counting of votes
Voting and counting of votes in referenda and elections run by the Commission is administered by its affiliated members under the overall supervision of the Board. It may use the help of members of judicial bodies.

The voting and counting of votes in elections and referenda in the 10 years following the date on which this Constitution comes to effect are to be overseen by members of judicial bodies and entities in the manner set out in the law.

The Supreme Administrative Court adjudicates challenges against the Commission’s decisions pertaining to referenda, presidential and parliamentary elections, and their results. Challenges against local elections are to be filed before the Administrative Court. Dates to file challenges against these decisions are specified by law, provided that challenges are finally adjudicated within ten days from the date of filing them

Section Ten: The National Media Council

Article 211: Mandate, composition
The National Media Council is an independent entity that has a legal personality, enjoys technical, financial and administrative independence, and has an independent budget.

The Council is regulates the affairs of radio, television, and printed and digital press, among others.

The Council is responsible for guaranteeing and protecting the freedom of press and media stipulated in the Constitution; safeguarding its independence, neutrality, plurality and diversity, preventing monopolistic practices; monitoring the legality of the sources of funding of press and media institutions; and establishing the controls and regulations necessary to ensure the commitment of press and media outlets to adhere to professional and ethical standards, and national security needs as set out by law.

The law determines the composition of the Council, its system of operation, and stipulates the conditions of employment for its staff.

The Council is to be consulted on bills and regulations related to its field of operation

Article 212: National Press and Media Association
The National Press and Media Association is independent, manages state-owned press and media institutions, and undertakes the development of them and their assets, and ensures their development, independence, neutrality and their adherence to sensible professional, administrative and economic standards.

The composition of the association, its system of operation, and the conditions of employment of its staff are specified by law.

It is to be consulted about bills and regulations pertaining to its field of operation

Article 213: National Press and Media Association
The National Press and Media Association is independent, manages state-owned television, radio and digital media outlets, and undertakes the development of them and their assets, and ensures their development, independence, neutrality and their adherence to sensible professional, administrative and economic standards.

The composition of the association, its system of operation, and the conditions of employment for its staff are specified by law.

It is to be consulted about bills and regulations pertaining to its field of operation

Section Eleven: National Councils, Independent Bodies and Regulatory Agencies

Subsection One: National Councils

Article 214: National Councils
The law specifies independent national councils including the National Council for Human Rights, the National Council for Women, the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood, and the National Council for Persons with Disability. The law sets out their structures, mandates, and guarantees for the independence and neutrality of their members. They have the right to report to the public authorities any violations pertaining to their fields of work.

These councils have legal personalities and enjoy technical, financial, and administrative independence. They are to be consulted with regards to draft laws and regulations pertaining to their affairs and fields of work

Subsection Two: Independent bodies and regulatory agencies

Article 215: Independent bodies and regulatory agencies
Independent bodies and regulatory agencies are identified by law. These bodies and agencies have legal personality, and technical, financial and administrative independence, and are consulted about draft laws and regulations that relate to their fields of operation. These bodies and agencies include the Central Bank, the Egyptian Financial Supervisory Authority, the Central Auditing Organization, and the Administrative Control Authority

Article 216: Creation of each independent body or regulatory agency
For the creation of each independent body or regulatory agency, a law is issued defining its competencies, regulating its work and stipulating guarantees for its independence and the necessary protection for its employees and the rest of their conditions, to ensure their neutrality and independence.

The President of the Republic appoints the heads of independent bodies and regulatory agencies upon the approval of the House of Representatives with a majority of its members, for a period of four years, renewable once. They cannot be relieved from their posts except in cases specified by law. The same prohibitions apply to them that apply to ministers

Article 217: Reporting by independent bodies and regulatory agencies
Independent bodies and regulatory agencies present annual reports to the President of the Republic, the House of Representatives and the Prime Minister at their time of issuance.

The House of Representatives considers such reports and takes appropriate action within a period not exceeding four months from the date of receipt. The reports are presented for public opinion.

Independent bodies and regulatory agencies notify the appropriate investigative authorities of any evidence of violations or crimes they may discover. They must take the necessary measures with regards to these reports within a specified period of time. The foregoing is regulated by law

Article 218: Fighting corruption
The state is committed to fighting corruption, and the competent control bodies and organizations are identified by law.

Competent oversight bodies and organizations commit to coordinate with one another in combating corruption, enhancing the values of integrity and transparency in order to ensure sound performance of public functions, preserve public funds, and develop and following up on the national strategy to fight corruption in collaboration with other competent control bodies and organizations, in the manner organized by law

Article 219: Central Auditing Organization
The Central Auditing Organization is responsible for monitoring the funds of the state, public legal personalities and other bodies to be identified by law; for the implementation of the state budget and independent budgets; and for reviewing its final accounts

Article 220: Central Bank
The Central Bank is responsible for developing and overseeing the implementation of monetary, credit, and banking polices, and for monitoring banks. It is exclusively entitled to issue banknotes. It maintains the safety of the monetary and banking system, and the stability of prices within the framework of the state's general political economic policy, in the manner organized by law

Article 221: Financial Supervisory Authority
The Egyptian Financial Supervisory Authority is responsible for monitoring and supervising markets and non-banking financial tools including capital markets, futures exchanges, insurance activities, real estate funding, financial leasing, and factoring and securitization, in the manner organized by law

Chapter Six: General and Transitional Provisions

Section One: General Provisions

Article 222: Capital
Cairo is the capital of the Arab Republic of Egypt

Article 223: Flag
The national flag of the Arab Republic of Egypt consists of three colors black, white, and red with the eagle of Saladin in golden yellow. The emblem, decorations, insignia, seal and the national anthem are defined by law.

Desecration of the Egyptian flag is a crime punishable by law

Article 224: Legal continuity
All of the provisions stipulated by laws and regulations prior to the proclamation of this Constitution remain valid and in force. They may not be amended or repealed except in accordance with the regulations and procedures prescribed in the Constitution.

The state commits to issuing laws implementing the provisions of this Constitution

Article 225: Publication of laws in the Official Gazette
Laws are published in the Official Gazette within 15 days from the date of their issuance, to be effective 30 days from the day following the date of publication, unless the law specifies a different date.

Provisions of the laws apply only from the date of their entry into force. However, with the approval of a two-thirds majority of the members of House of Representatives, provisions to the contrary may be made in articles pertaining to non-criminal and non-tax-related matters

Article 226: Amendment
The amendment of one or more of the Constitution articles may be requested by the President of the Republic or one-fifth of the members of the House of Representatives. The request specifies the articles to be amended and the reasons for the amendments.

In all cases, the House of Representatives will debate the request within 30 days from the date of its receipt. The House issues its decision to accept the request in whole or in part by a majority of its members.

If the request is rejected, the same amendments may not be requested again before the next legislative term.

If the amendment request is approved by the House, it discusses the text of the articles to be amended within 60 days from the date of approval. If approved by a two-thirds majority of the House’s members, the amendment is put to public referendum within 30 days from the date of approval. The amendment is effective from the date on which the referendum’s result and the approval of a valid majority of the participants in the referendum are announced.

In all cases, texts pertaining to the principles of freedom and equality stipulated in this Constitution may not be amended, unless the amendment brings more guarantees

Article 227: Constitution and Preamble
The Constitution and its preamble and texts are a well-knit fabric that is non-divisible. Its provisions constitute one coherent unit

Section Two: Transitional Provisions

Article 228: High Electoral Committee, Presidential Election Committee
The High Electoral Committee and the Presidential Election Committee existing at the time this Constitution comes into force shall undertake the full supervision of the first parliamentary and presidential elections following the date it came into effect. The funds of the two committees revert to the National Electoral Commission, as soon as the latter is formed

Article 229: Election of the House of Representatives
The election of the House of Representatives following the date on which this Constitution comes into effect shall take place in accordance with the provisions of Article 102

Article 230: Procedures for parliamentary and presidential elections
Procedures for the election of the President of the Republic or the House of Representatives shall take place in the manner regulated by law, provided that they begin within no less than 30 days and no more than 90 days of this Constitution coming into effect.

In all cases, the next electoral procedures shall begin within a period not exceeding six months as of the date the Constitution comes into effect

Article 231: Beginning of the presidential term
The presidential term following the adoption of this Constitution begins as of the date that the final result of the elections is announced

Article 232: The interim president
The Interim President of the Republic continues to exercise the presidential powers stipulated in the Constitution until the elected President of the Republic takes the constitutional oath

Article 233: Vacancy of the office of the interim president
If on account of a temporary impediment, the Interim President of the Republic is rendered unable to exercise his powers, the Prime Minister acts in his place.

If the Interim Presidential office becomes vacant, due to resignation, death, permanent inability to work or any other reason, the most senior Vice-President of the Supreme Constitutional Court replaces him

Article 234: Minister of defense
The Minister of Defense is appointed upon the approval of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. The provisions of this article shall remain in force for two full presidential terms starting from the date on which this Constitution comes into effect

Article 235: Building and renovating churches
In its first legislative term after this Constitution comes into effect, the House of Representatives shall issue a law to organize building and renovating churches, guaranteeing Christians the freedom to practice their religious rituals

Article 236: Economic and urban development of border and underprivileged areas
The state shall develop and implement a plan for the comprehensive economic and urban development of border and underprivileged areas, including Upper Egypt, Sinai, Matrouh, and Nubia. This is to be achieved by the participation of the residents of these areas in the development projects and the priority in benefiting from them, taking into account the cultural and environmental patterns of the local community, within ten years from the date that this Constitution comes into effect, in the manner organized by law.

The state works on developing and implementing projects to bring back the residents of Nubia to their original areas and develop them within 10 years in the manner organized by law

Article 237: War on terrorism
The state commits to fighting all types and forms of terrorism and tracking its sources of funding within a specific time frame in light of the threat in represents to the nation and citizens, with guarantees for public rights and freedoms.

The law organizes the provisions and procedures of fighting terrorism, and fair compensation for the damages resulting from it and because of it

Article 238: Government expenditure on education
The state shall gradually implement its commitment to the allocation of the minimum government expenditure rates on education, higher education, health and scientific research that are stipulated in this Constitution as of the date that it comes into effect. It shall be fully committed to it in the state budget of the fiscal year 2016/2017.

The state commits to providing compulsory education until the completion of the secondary stage in a gradual manner to be completed in school year 2016/2017

Article 239: Delegating judges, members of judicial bodies
The House of Representatives issues a law organizing the rules for delegating judges and members of judicial bodies and entities to ensure cancelling full and partial delegation to non-judicial bodies or committees with judicial competence, or for managing justice affairs or overseeing elections, within a period not exceeding five years from the date on which this Constitution comes into effect

Article 240: Rulings of criminal courts
The state ensures providing financial and human capacities pertaining to appealing the rulings issued by criminal courts within 10 years from the date this Constitution comes into effect. The foregoing is organized by law

Article 241: Transitional justice
In its first session after the enforcement of this Constitution, the House of Representatives commits to issuing a transitional justice law that ensures revealing the truth, accountability, proposing frameworks for national reconciliation, and compensating victims, in accordance with international standards

Article 242: Local administration
The existing local administration system continues to be used until the system stipulated in the Constitution is gradually implemented within five years of its date of entry into force without prejudice to article 180 of this Constitution

Article 243: Workers and farmers representation in parliament
The state grants workers and farmers appropriate representation in the first House of Representatives to be elected after this Constitution is adopted, in the manner specified by law

Article 244: Representation for youth, Christians, disabled persons, etc
The state grants youth, Christians, persons with disability and expatriate Egyptians appropriate representation in the first House of Representatives to be elected after this Constitution is adopted, in the manner specified by law

Article 245: Employees of the Shoura Council
The employees of the Shoura Council who are still serving on the date that this Constitution is adopted are transferred to the House of Representatives while keeping the same degrees and seniorities they occupied on that date. Their salaries, allowances, remunerations, and the rest of their financial rights granted to them in a personal capacity are kept. All funds of the Shoura Council revert to the House of Representatives

Article 246: Constitutional Declarations
The Constitutional Declaration issued on the 5th of July 2013, the Constitutional Declaration issued on the 8th of July 2013, and any constitutional texts or provisions mentioned in the Constitution issued on 2012 but not covered by this constitutional document are hereby repealed as of the date that it comes into effect. However, their consequent effects remain in force

Article 247: Entry into force
This Constitution comes into effect on the date that it is announced that the people have approved it in a referendum through a majority of valid votes of the participants


Data from the Comparative Constitutions Project and Constitute.

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